Rape rate in Nigeria

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mso-font-kerning:18.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Types of rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"">From Wikipedia, the free

encyclopedia






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rape

can be categorized in different ways: for example, by reference to the

situation in which it occurs, by the identity or characteristics of the victim,

and by the identity or characteristics of the perpetrator. These categories are

referred to as types of rape. The types of rape described below are not

mutually exclusive: a given rape can fit into multiple categories, by for

example by being both a prison rape and a gang rape, or both a custodial rape

and the rape of a child.






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">In 1993,

American researcher Patricia Rozee created the following classification of

rapes: marital rape (rape by a spouse); exchange rape (rape occurring as the

result of bargaining or solidarity-displaying among men); punitive rape (rape

used to punish or discipline); theft rape (rape that happens when a woman is

abducted, in most cases to be used as a slave or a prostitute); ceremonial rape

(rape involving defloration rituals); and status rape (rape resulting from

differences in hierarchy or social class).[1][2]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Contents






  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">1 Date rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">2 Gang rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">3 Spousal rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">4 Rape of children

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">5 Statutory rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">6 Prison rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">7 Payback rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">8 War rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">9 Rape by deception

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">10 Corrective rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">11 Custodial rape

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">12 Groth typology

    • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">12.1 Anger rapist

    • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">12.2 Power rapist

    • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">12.3 Sadistic rapist

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">13 See also

  • mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">14 References





mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Date rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Date rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">The term

"date rape" is used to refer to several types of rape, broadly acquaintance rape, which is a non-domestic rape

committed by someone who knows the victim,[3] and drug

facilitated sexual assault
(DFSA), where the rapist intentionally

drugs the victim with a date rape drug so

that they are incapacitated. Acquaintance rape constitutes the vast majority of

reported rapes, while DFSA is

infrequent
. A frequently overlapping category is incapacitated

rape,
where the victim is incapacitated and unable to give consent – this

is often the result of intoxication, but can also simply be because the victim

is asleep or has a medical condition. DFSA is when the rapist intentionally

incapacitates the victim via drugs, while acquaintance rape can occur when the

victim is not incapacitated.






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Acquaintance

rape can occur between two people who know one another usually in social

situations, between people who are dating as a couple and have had consensual

sex in the past, between two people who are starting to date, between people

who are just friends, and between acquaintances. They include rapes of

co-workers, schoolmates, family, friends, teachers and other acquaintances,

providing they are dating;[4] it is sometimes referred to as

"hidden rape" and has been identified as a growing problem in western society.[5] A college survey conducted by the United

States' National Victim Center reported that one in four college women have

been raped or experienced attempted rape.[6] This report indicates that young women

are at considerable risk of becoming a victim of date rape while in college. In

addition, there have been reported incidents of colleges questioning accounts

of alleged victims, further complicating documentation and policing of student

assaults, despite such preventative legislation as the Clery Act.[7][8]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Gang rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Gang rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Gang rape

occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. Rape

involving at least two or more violators (usually at least three[9]) is widely reported to occur in many

parts of the world. Systematic information on the extent of the problem, however,

is scant.






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">One study

showed that offenders and victims in gang rape incidents were younger with a

higher possibility of being unemployed. Gang rapes involved more alcohol and

other drug use, night

attacks and severe sexual assault outcomes and less victim resistance and fewer

weapons than individual rapes.[10] Another study found that group sexual

assaults were more violent and had greater resistance from the victim than

individual sexual assaults and that victims of group sexual assaults were more

likely to seek crisis and police services, contemplate suicide, and seek therapy than those involved in

individual assaults. The two groups were about the same in the amount of

drinking and other drug use during the assault.[11]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Spousal rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Marital rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Also known as

marital rape, wife rape, husband rape, partner rape or intimate partner sexual

assault (IPSA), is rape between a married or de facto couple. Research

reveals that victims of marital/partner rape suffer longer lasting trauma than

victims of stranger rape.[12]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rape of children






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Child sexual abuse






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">See also: Incest and Child-on-child

sexual abuse






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rape of a child

is a form of child sexual abuse.

When committed by another child (usually older or stronger) or adolescent, it

is called child-on-child

sexual abuse
. When committed by a parent or other close relatives

such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, it is also incest and can result in serious and long-term

psychological trauma.[13] When a child is raped by an adult who

is not a family member but is a caregiver or in a position of authority over

the child, such as school teachers, religious authorities, or therapists, to

name a few, on whom the child is dependent, the effects can be similar to

incestual rape.






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Statutory rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Further

information: Statutory rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">National and

regional governments, citing an interest in protecting

"young people" (variously defined but sometimes synonymous with minors) from sexual exploitation, treat any

sexual contact with such a person as an offense (not always categorized as

"rape"), even if he or she agrees to or initiates the sexual

activity.






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">The offense is

often based on a presumption that people under a certain age do not have the

capacity to give consent. The age at which individuals are considered competent

to give consent, called the age of consent, varies in different countries and

regions; in the US, the age ranges from 16 to 18. Sexual activity that violates

age-of-consent law, but is neither violent nor physically coerced, is sometimes

described as "statutory rape,"

a legally-recognized category in the United States. Most states, however, allow

persons younger than the age of consent to engage in sexual activity if the age

difference between the partners is small; these are called close in age

exemptions or a Romeo and Juliet exemption

and even in countries where there is no official legal exemption prosecutions

are infrequent.






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Prison rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Prison rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rates of prison rape have been reported as affecting

between 3% and 12% of prison inmates in the US.[14] Although prison rapes are more commonly

same-sex crimes (since prisons are usually separated by sex), the attacker

usually does not identify as homosexual.[15] This phenomenon is much less common

elsewhere in the western world. This is partly because of the differences in

the structure of the prison system in the US as compared to the prison systems

in Canada, Australia and Europe.[citation needed]






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">The attacker is

most commonly another inmate.[16]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Payback rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">"Payback

rape", also called "punishment rape" or "revenge

rape", is a form of rape specific to certain cultures, particularly the Pacific Islands. It consists of the rape of a

female, usually by a group of several males, as revenge for acts committed by

members of her family, such as her father or brothers. The rape is meant to

humiliate the father or brothers, as punishment for their prior behavior

towards the perpetrators.[17] Payback rape is sometimes connected to

tribal fighting.[18]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">War rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: War rape





Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Paul_Jamin_-_Le_Brenn_et_sa_part_de_butin_1893.jpg/220px-Paul_Jamin_-_Le_Brenn_et_sa_part_de_butin_1893.jpg
"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Brennus

and His Share of the Spoils

mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">, by Paul Jamin, 1893






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">War rapes

mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN"> are rapes

committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or

war, or during military occupation. It also covers the situation where girls

and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power.[citation needed]






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">During war,

rape is often used as a means of psychological warfare

in order to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. Rapes in war are

often systematic and thorough, and military leaders may actually encourage

their soldiers to rape civilians. Likewise, systematic rapes are often employed

as a form of ethnic cleansing.[citation needed]






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">War rape has

been considered a war crime only since

1949. Article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention explicitly prohibits wartime

rape and enforced prostitution. These prohibitions were reinforced by the 1977

Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions.[19] Therefore, during the post-war Nuremberg Trials and Tokyo Trials, mass war rape was not prosecuted as

a war crime.






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">In 1998, the International

Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape

is a crime of genocide under international law. In one judgement, Navanethem Pillay said: "From time

immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered

a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a

trophy of war."[20]






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">The word rape

only began to be used to refer to sexual assault in the early 15th century, and

its dominant usage remained to refer to abduction and robbery without any

connotation of sexual assault until the modern period. Many classical

references to rape during war do not refer explicitly to instances of sexual assault,

but rather to the practice of abducting the women or jhproperty of the enemy

during warfare.[21]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rape by deception






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Rape by deception






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Rape by

deception occurs when the perpetrator gains the victim's consent through fraud.






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Corrective rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Main article: Corrective rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Corrective rape

is targeted rape against non-heterosexuals as a punishment for violating gender roles.[22][23] It is a form of hate crime against LGBT

individuals, mainly lesbians, in which the rapist justifies the act as an

acceptable response to the victim's perceived sexual or gender orientation and

a form of punishment for being gay.[22][23] Often, the stated argument of the

corrective rapist is that the rape will turn the person straight,

"correcting" their sex or gender, i.e. make them conform to societal

norms.[22][23][24] The term was first coined in South

Africa after well-known cases of corrective rape, such as that of sports star Eudy Simelane, became public.[25]






mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Custodial rape






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Custodial rape

is rape perpetrated by a person employed by the state in a supervisory or

custodial position, such as a police officer, public servant or jail or

hospital employee.[26][27][28] It includes the rape of children in

institutional care such as orphanages.[29]






mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN" lang="EN">Custodial rape

has been reported in India, Pakistan,Subscribe to access this work and thousands more

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APA

Aleburu, R (2018). Rape rate in Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 22, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/rape-rate-in-nigeria-1110

MLA 8th

Ruffy, Aleburu. "Rape rate in Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/rape-rate-in-nigeria-1110 . Accessed 22 Apr. 2021.

MLA7

Ruffy, Aleburu. "Rape rate in Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 22 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/rape-rate-in-nigeria-1110 >.

Chicago

Ruffy, Aleburu. "Rape rate in Nigeria" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed April 22, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/rape-rate-in-nigeria-1110