"A Legal Analysis of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol and Its Relevance to Uganda with Specific Emphasis On the Clean Development Mechanism"

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ..................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL ............................................................................................................ ii

DEDICATION ....................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................... iv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................. v

LIST OF CASES ................................................................................................... vii

LIST OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES ........................................................... vii

OTHER INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS ..................................... vii

LIST OF STATUTES .......................................................................................... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................... ix

CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................... 1

1.0.Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1

1.1.Backgroundto the Study ............................................................... 1

1.2Statement of the Problem ............................................................... 5

1.3.Objectives of the Study ................................................................. 5

1 .4.Research Questions ........................................................................................... 6

1.5 Significance the Study ...................................................................................... 6

1.6 Literature Review ....................................................................... 7

1.7 Scope of the Study ..................................................................... 19

1.8 ResearchMethodology .................................................................................... 19

1.8.1 Library and Internet Research I 9

1.8.2 Research Design .......................................................................................... 19

1.8.3 Obstacles .................................................................................................... 19

ix

1.9 Chapter Synopsis ............................................................................................ 20

1.9.1 ChapterOne ................................................................................................. 20

1.9.2 ChapterTwo ................................................................................................ 20

1.9.3 Chapter Three .............................................................................................. 20

1.9.4 Chapter Four. ............................................................................................... 20

1.9.5 Chapter Five ................................................................................................ 21

CHAPTER TWO ................................................................................................... 22

HISTORY OF CLIMATE CHANGE NEGOTIATIONS .................................... 22

2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 22

2.2 Tracing the Roots of the Climate Change Debate .......................................... 23

2.2.1 The Observational Revolution ..................................................................... 23

2.2.2 The Computer Revolution ........................................................................... 23

2.2.3 The Research Revolution ........................................................................... 24

2.2.4 The "Influence of Human Activities on Climate" Revolution ................... 24

2.2.5 Significance of the Revolutions .................................................................. 25

2.3. The UN Stockholm Conference on Human Environment, 1972 ................... 25

2.4.0 Beginning of the International Debate on Climate Change: The First World

Climate Conference, 1979 ..................................................................................... 25

2.4.1 WMO Decisions in the Aftermath of the First World Climate Conference. 26

2.5. The Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Development -

Our Common Future Repmi, 1987 ....................................................................... 26

2.5.1 Significance of Our Common Future Report on Climate Change ............... 28

2.6 The Influence of the Ozone Layer Convention on Climate Change ............... 28

2. 7. Intergovernn1ental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) .................................... 30

2.8 The Second World Climate Conference and the Adoption of the UNFCCC. 30

X

2.8.1. Key Tasks of the Second World Climate Conference (SWCC) The key

tasks of the SWCC ................................................................................................ 31

2.8.2 The Position of Developing Countries at the SWCC .................................. 32

2.9. Adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

(UNFCCC) ............................................................................................................ 33

2.10. Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC ........................................ 33

Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 34

CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................... 35

THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT: THE lNTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ........................... 35

3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 35

3.2 Origins of the Clean Development Mechanism .............................................. 35

3.3 The Concept of Sustainable Development (SD) ............................................. 37

3.3.1 Application of the SD Concept in the Gabcikovo Nagymaros Project Case38

3 .3 .2 The Intergenerational Concept ..................................................................... 40

3.3.3 Application of the SD Concept to the Clean Development Mechanism ...... 42

3.4 The Concept of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities .................... .43

3.5 Comparison of Joint Implementation (JI) I Activities Implemented Jointly

(AIJ) and the CDM ................................................................................................ 45

3.6 The Special Role of the Developed World .................................................... .47

3.7 Misgivings of the Developed World: The Case of the US Rejection of the

Kyoto Protocol ...................................................................................................... 49

3.7.1 Legal Responsibility of the Developed Counh·ies ........................................ 50

3.8 The International Legal Framework ofCDM ................................................ 51

xi

CHAPTERFOUR ................................................................................................. 54

FRAMEWORK FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CLEAN

DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN UGANDA ................................................ 54

4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 54

4.2 Review of the Policy Framework ................................................................... 55

4.2.1 The Environment Policy ............................................................................. 55

4.2.2 The Forestry Policy ..................................................................................... 57

4.2.3 The Energy Policy ....................................................................................... 59

4.3 Review of the Legal and Regulatory Framework .......................................... 60

4.3. l National Environment ACT ........................................................................ 60

4.3.2 The National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, 2003 ................................... 61

4.3.3 The Water Act ............................................................................................. 62

4.3.4 The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act.. ..................................... 62

4.3.5 The Mining Act, 2003 ................................................................................. 63

4.3.6 The Electricity Act ...................................................................................... 63

4.3.7 Income Tax Act, Cap 243 Laws ofUganda ................................................ 65

4.3.8 The Investment Code, 1991 ........................................................................ 65

4.3.9 The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, 1999 ........ 66

4.3.10 The Water Resources Regulations, 1998 .................................................. 67

4.3.11 The National Environment (Wetlands, River Banks and Lake Shores

Management) Regulations, 2000 ........................................................................... 67

4.4.1 The Department of Meteorology .................................................................. 68

4.4.2 National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) ............................ 69

4.4.3 The Uganda Investment Authority ............................................................... 69

4.4.4 Ministry of Water and Environment ........................................................... 70

4.4.5 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development ........................................... 71

xii

4.5 The Potential of CDM Projects in Uganda ...................................................... 71

4.6 The Role of the Private Sector in CDM Projects ............................................ 73

4.7 The Socio-Economic Aspects ofCDM Implementation ................................ 74

4.8 Constraints in CDM Implementation

·······························································································································75

4.9 Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 76

CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................... 77

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 77

5.1 Overview and Approach .................................................................................. 77

5.2 Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 77

5.3 Recommendations ........................................................................................... 80  


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APA

DENNIS, A (2022). "A Legal Analysis of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol and Its Relevance to Uganda with Specific Emphasis On the Clean Development Mechanism". Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-legal-analysis-of-the-climate-change-convention-and-the-kyoto-protocol-and-its-relevance-to-uganda-with-specific-emphasis-on-the-clean-development-mechanism

MLA 8th

DENNIS, ATWIJUKIRE ""A Legal Analysis of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol and Its Relevance to Uganda with Specific Emphasis On the Clean Development Mechanism"" Afribary. Afribary, 06 Sep. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/a-legal-analysis-of-the-climate-change-convention-and-the-kyoto-protocol-and-its-relevance-to-uganda-with-specific-emphasis-on-the-clean-development-mechanism. Accessed 12 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

DENNIS, ATWIJUKIRE . ""A Legal Analysis of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol and Its Relevance to Uganda with Specific Emphasis On the Clean Development Mechanism"". Afribary, Afribary, 06 Sep. 2022. Web. 12 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/a-legal-analysis-of-the-climate-change-convention-and-the-kyoto-protocol-and-its-relevance-to-uganda-with-specific-emphasis-on-the-clean-development-mechanism >.

Chicago

DENNIS, ATWIJUKIRE . ""A Legal Analysis of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol and Its Relevance to Uganda with Specific Emphasis On the Clean Development Mechanism"" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 12, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/a-legal-analysis-of-the-climate-change-convention-and-the-kyoto-protocol-and-its-relevance-to-uganda-with-specific-emphasis-on-the-clean-development-mechanism