Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County

Abstract:

Energy affects all aspects of development: social, economic and environmental, including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels and education. Public schools spend a lot of money every year on energy bills. Currently, they are experiencing an exponential increase in student enrolment which puts more pressure on energy needs. This study focuses on cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County. The specific objectives are to: (1) establish the sources of energy used in public secondary schools, (2) investigate the factors determining the choice of the energy source(s), (3) assess environmental and socio-economic impacts of major energy sources and (4) conduct cost benefit analysis of major energy sources. The study used Survey Research Design (SRD) and a census survey, with all 30 schools in the study site studied via questionnaire administration, observation, interview and photography for data collection. Both descriptive and Benefit Cost Ratio analytical procedures were used. The study findings showed that firewood was the most popular cooking energy source with all (100%) schools using it while charcoal came second (23%) followed by LPG gas (10%) and paraffin (7%). Only 3% of the schools used electricity for cooking. The over reliance on firewood for cooking is expected to have negative environmental consequences in the study area. Electricity was the most popular source of energy for lighting (60%) followed by solar energy (27%) and paraffin (7%). These are expensive sources of energy. An investigation into forms of low cost energy technologies as perceived by the respondents revealed energy saving stoves (87%), solar power (27%) and energy saving bulbs (10%). The reasons for adoption of these energy technologies was mainly high cost of other energy sources and need to conserve the environment. The challenges associated with the different types of energy identified were; electricity (unreliability), firewood (scarcity), charcoal (scarcity) and solar power (high installation cost). The study found firewood consumption was on average 10 tonnes per school per term and that firewood had been used for cooking for more than 13 years on average in all schools in the study area. The study found the Benefit cost ratio (BCR) of solar power at 1.19 and BCR of firewood at 0.19. The study concludes that there was over reliance on firewood for cooking and adoption of modern energy technologies like solar power was very low with adoption by only 27% of schools. The study recommends: (1) the national and county governments to come up with policies such as subsidies, grants and tax relief that will make these technologies affordable and accessible to schools for adoption, (2) establishment of school-based woodlots consisting of fast-growing tree varieties to address the school wood fuel demands instead of escalating the destruction and loss of indigenous forest ecosystems in the area, (3) since solar power has a BCR greater than 1, the study recommends that schools should consider installing more of solar power to reduce huge energy bills and to reduce over dependency on firewood.
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APA

T., K (2024). Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/cost-benefit-analysis-of-different-energy-sources-used-in-public-secondary-schools-in-mtito-andei-division-makueni-county-2

MLA 8th

T., Kazungu "Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County" Afribary. Afribary, 04 May. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/cost-benefit-analysis-of-different-energy-sources-used-in-public-secondary-schools-in-mtito-andei-division-makueni-county-2. Accessed 26 May. 2024.

MLA7

T., Kazungu . "Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County". Afribary, Afribary, 04 May. 2024. Web. 26 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/cost-benefit-analysis-of-different-energy-sources-used-in-public-secondary-schools-in-mtito-andei-division-makueni-county-2 >.

Chicago

T., Kazungu . "Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 26, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/cost-benefit-analysis-of-different-energy-sources-used-in-public-secondary-schools-in-mtito-andei-division-makueni-county-2