EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF HEARSAY EVIDENCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN EVIDENCE ACT,2011

Mohammed Abubakar 125 PAGES (37490 WORDS) Project
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Evidential Value of Hearsay Evidence

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ………………………………………………………………………. I
Declaration……………………………………………………………………. II
Certification………………………….……………………………………..… III
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………. IV
Acknowledgement …………………………………..……………………..…. V
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………… VII
Table of Cases ……………………………………………………………..…. X
Table of Statutes …………………………………………………………… XIII
List of Abbreviations …………………………………………………...….. XIV
CHAPTER ONE
General Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background of the study ………………………………..……………….2
1.2 Statement of Problem ……………………………………………………3
1.3 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………….. 3
1.4 Aims and Objective ………………………………………...……………3
1.5 Scope and Limitations ……………………………..…………………… 4
1.6 Research Methodology …………………………….…………………… 4
1.7 Literature Review ………………………………………………………..4
1.8 Organizational Layout…………………………………………………. 10
CHAPTER TWO
Meaning and Nature of Evidence…………………………….…………….... 15
1.0 Introduction……………………..……….…………………………….. 15
2.1 Meaning of evidence ……………………………..…………………… 15
2.2 Development of the law of evidence ….............................……………. 24
2.3 Classification of Evidence ……….………………………..………….. 38
2.4 Conclusion ………………………..…………………….…………….. 49
vii
CHAPTER THREE
Appraisal of Hearsay Evidence ………………………………………………50
3.0 Introduction……………………………………………………....……. 50
3.1 Concept of hearsay evidence…………………………...……………… 51
3.2 Scope of hearsay evidence …………………………………………….. 70
3.3 Qualification of hearsay evidence ……………………...……………... 80
3.4 Conclusion …………………………...……………………….……….. 84
CHAPTER FOUR
Admissibility of Hearsay Evidence ……………………….………………… 85
4.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………….... 85
4.1 Admissibility and Weight of Evidence of hearsay evidence………..
4.1 Exceptions to Hearsay Evidence ………………………………..…….. 85
4.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 125
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion…………………….…...…. 126
5.0 Summary …………………………………...……..………………….. 126
5.1 Recommendation …………………………………………..………….127
5.2 Conclusion ………………………….………………………..………..128
viii
TABLE OF CASES
Achoru V. Attorney- General of Bendel State
1
(1990) 7 NWLR pt. 160 92… 60
Adekia V. Vaatia (1987) 1 NWLR 134…………….………….……….………….. 62
Amels Transport Ltd V. Madam Atinuke Martin (1971) 1 NLR 21……...…….. 62
Amobi V. Amobi (1996) 42 LRCN…………….…………………..……………117
Anaeze V. Anyazo (1993 5 SCNJ 151 at 156) ………………………….……… 29
Andrews V. Cordiener 1947) K.B. 655. …………………………………………. 116
Anthony Okoro V. State (2012) 4 NWLR, pt. 1290, 351……………..………….. 98
Armels Transport Ltd V. Martin (1970) All N.L.R. 27………… …………….117
Awuse V. Odili (2005) 16 NWLR (pt. 952) 416 CA…………………….…… 11, 67
Barclays Bank of Nigeria V. Central Bank of Nigeria1976)6 S.C. 175….. 121
Barewa Pharmaceutical Ltd V. F.G.N 2016) 17NWLR pt. 1540 ……………..120
Barkway V. South Wales Transport Ltd (1949) 1K.B. 54 at 60….…………….118
Chandrasekera V. R (1937) AC 220…………………………………………….... 101
David, Mark V. Usman Abubakar (2009) NWLR pt. 1124, 79…………….…. 63
Edmonds V. Edmonds(1947)P.67 at 69…………………………………………. 118
Ekpoisong V. State (2009) 1 NWLR pt. 11122, 354 at 368………………...….. 95
Eme V. Wamouh (1991) 7 NWLR pt. 203, 375. ……………………………….…111
Ezemba V. Ibeneme (2004) 14 NWLR pt. 894 ……………………………………. 49
F.B.N V. Asawari (2015) NWLR pt. 1463………………….……………..………. 66
F.R.N. V. Usman (2012) 8 NWLR pt. 1301………………..……………………… 67
Garba V. Queen (1959) 4 F.S.C 162………………………………………..…… 97
Hausa V. the State (1994) 7-8 SCNJ pt. 1, 1...…………………………………… 96
Hon Justice Ankara V. Hon Justice Egbue (2013) 10 SCM 178………...…… 30
I.N.E.C V. Action congress (2009)2 NWLR pt. 1126 ………………………. 28, 62
Jacob V. A-G Akwa Ibom State (2002)7 NWLR pt. 765…………………….….. 23
Jilayemi V. Alaoye (2004) 12 NWLR pt. 887………………………...….………. 66
1
ix
Jolayemi V. Alaoye (2004) 12 NWLR (pt. 887) 322 SC…...……………….……. 13
Junga v R (1952) AC 480……………..………………………………….…………68
Kashi V. State (2015) 8 NWLR 1464. ………….…………………….….…………79
Lilley V. Pettit (1946) K.B. 401…………………………………………………… 116
Maigari V. State (2010) All FWLR pt.546)……………………………….………46
Maja (junior) and Sons Limited V. United Africa Company of Nigeria (1971) 1
NMLR 157………………………………………………………………………….… 33
Mawaz Khan V. R (1967) 1 AC. 454 (P.C.).……...……………….……………. 72
Momo Garba & Another V. R (1959) 4 FSC 162 at 165. …………...………….. 93
Myers V. DPP (1991) II SCNJ 19……………………………………………...… 55
Nwobodo V. Onoh (1983) NSCC 470 ……………………………………….……. 21
Ogbunyiya and Others V. Okudo and Others (1979) All N.L.R 105.2..........…. 21
Ojiako V. State (1991) 2 NWLR pt. 175, 578 at 584……………..………….… 60
Okereocha V. Ministry of Commerce and Tourism (2001) 1 NWLR (pt. 693) 126
CA…………………………………………………………………………….……….. 12
Omoboriowo V. Ajasin (1984)1 S.C 1………………………………………….... 21
Onya V. Ogbuji (2011) All FWLR Pg. 597……………………………………….. 37
Onyioha V. Union Bank Ltd (1993) 5 NWLR pt. 296, 698 ……………………..27
Patel v Comptroller of Customs (1965) 3 All ER 593……….…………………..67
Privy Council in Subramanian V public prosecutor (1956) 1 W.L.R 965… 3,
59………………………………………………………………………………………., 72
R V. Adiaha Nwa Ikpe (1960)5 F.S.C 180. ……….…………………………….. 121
R V. Anwuna (1949) 12 WACA 456…………………….………………………… 51
R V. Baker (1837) 2M. & Rob.53…………………………………….………….. 89
R V. Bedingfield (1879) 14 Cox 341 ……………………………….………..…… 29
R V. Gibson (1887) 18 QBD 537……………..…………………………………… 55.
R V. Hutchinson 2B&C 605………………………………………………………. 88
R V. Itule (1961)2 SCNLR 183 at 186 ……………………………………..……… 26
R V. Kearley (1992) 2 AC 228 at 245. …………………………………………83
x
R V. Mead (1824) 2 B&C 605. …………………………….………………………..88
R V. O’Brien (1978) 1SCR 591. ……………………………………………..…… 105
R V. Ogbuewu (1949) 12 WACA 483…………………………………………….. 93
R V. Perry (1909) 2K.B. 697. …………………………………………………….. 91
R V. Pike (1829) 3 C&P 598. ……………………………………………………100
R V. Rogers (1959) LLR 97. ……………………………………………………… 104
R V. Sang (1980) ac 402 ………………………………………………………….. 31
R V. Scaife (1836) 2 Lewin 150. ………………………………………..………. 100
R V. Taoridi Lawani (1959) L.L.R 57. …………………………………….…. 103
R V. Woodcock (1789)1 Leach, 500 at 502……………………………………… 90
R. Dodson (1984) 79 Crim R 220. ………..……………………………………….78
Ratten V. R. (1972) AC. 378 (P.C.) ……………………………..………………… 75
Re Magillivra (1946) 2 All E.R 301…………………………………..……………112
Simpson V. Lever ( 1963) 1 Q.B. 517…………………………………………… 117
Sparks V. R (1954) AC 964…………………………………………….………… 65
Sugden V. Lord St. Leonard’s (1876) IP.D. 154 …………………………..…..112
Sylvester Utteh V. State (1992) 2 SCNJ pt. 183………..……………………… 60
Tenywa v Uganda (1967) EA 102. ………………………………………………… 69
Teper V. R (1952) AC 480………………………………………………………. 75, 81
The Military Governor of Ondo State and another V. Adewumi (1988)3 NWLR
pt.82 ……………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Ukpo V. Imoke (2009) 1 NWLR 1121,90……………………………………...… 55
Utteh V. State (1992) 2 NWLR pt.223 ……………………………..…..…………. 28
Wahab Aigbotosho V. Governor of Oyo State & Ors (2004) 14 NWLR pt.
894……………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Yakubu V. State (1980) All NLR 138……………………………………….……. 47
Zimit V. Mohammed (1993)1 NWLR pt. 262…………………………………..… 24
xi
TABLE OF STATUTES
Civil Evidence Act 1968 ………………………………………….…..….. 24, 58
Constitution of Nigeria (as amended) 1999 ……………………...………. 37, 38
Constitution of Nigeria 1963 ………………………………….…..…..25, 26, 27
Constitution of Nigeria 1979 ………………………………………………… 28
English Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 ………………………….….36
Evidence Act Cap 112 Laws of Federation 1990 ….…………………….. 25, 85
Evidence Act Cap 62 Laws of Federation 1968 …….……………………….. 25
Evidence Act Cap E14 Laws of the Federation 2011 ……………... 31,32,34,35,
36, 37, 40, 45, 48, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 76, 77, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 93, 94, 98, 100,
103, 105, 107, 111 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122 124, 126, 127, 128
Evidence Act Cap E141 2004 Laws of Federation …………………………... 25
Evidence Act of 1943 ……………………………………………………. 31, 32
Evidence Ordinance ………………………………………………….. 24, 25, 26
Land Instrument Registration Law of Eastern Nigeria ………………………. 33
Magistrate Court Ordinance 1943 ……………………………………………. 24
Ordinance No. 45 1943 …………………………….……………………….... 24
Protectorate Court Ordinance 1933 ……………….………………………..... 24
Provincial Court Ordinance 1914 …………………………….……………… 24
xii
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
ALL N.L.R All Nigerian Law Reports
Ch. Chancery Law Reports
Ch.D Chancery Division Law Report
e.g. Example
Ibid Ibidem
N.M.L.R Nigerian Monthly Law Report
N.S.C.C. Nigeria Supreme Court Cases
N.W.L.R Nigerian Weekly Law Report
No. Number
K.B Kings Bench Report
Ltd Limited
Anor. Another
Cap. Chapter
A.C. Appeal Cases
Paras Paragraphs
Pt. Part
PW1 Prosecution Witness one
QB Queens Bench Report
Vol. Volume
S.C Supreme Court
S.C.N.L.R Supreme Court of Nigerian Law Report
2nd Second
Supra Above
W.A.C.A. West African Court of Appeal
W.L.R. Weekly Law Report
Op cit opera citato (Latin - means the same with reference)
Ors Others
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APA

Mohammed, A (2019). EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF HEARSAY EVIDENCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN EVIDENCE ACT,2011. Afribary.com: Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/evidential-value-of-hearsay-evidence-under-the-nigerian-evidence-act-2011

MLA 8th

Abubakar, Mohammed. "EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF HEARSAY EVIDENCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN EVIDENCE ACT,2011" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 24 Jun. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/evidential-value-of-hearsay-evidence-under-the-nigerian-evidence-act-2011 . Accessed 22 Nov. 2019.

MLA7

Abubakar, Mohammed. "EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF HEARSAY EVIDENCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN EVIDENCE ACT,2011". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 24 Jun. 2019. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/evidential-value-of-hearsay-evidence-under-the-nigerian-evidence-act-2011 >.

Chicago

Abubakar, Mohammed. "EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF HEARSAY EVIDENCE UNDER THE NIGERIAN EVIDENCE ACT,2011" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed November 22, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/evidential-value-of-hearsay-evidence-under-the-nigerian-evidence-act-2011