RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

Oyewumi Adewale 103 PAGES (38850 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

The right to life is the most basic, fundamental, primordial and supreme right which human beings are entitled to have and without which the protection of all other human rights becomes either meaningless or less effective. Indeed, the right of each person to life is something, which is intrinsic to his status as a human being and which is a necessary concomitant of human existence. The preservation of this right is one of the essential functions of the state and the numerous provisions of national legislation guarantees the enjoyment of this right.


In the oldest written records of human history such as the Code of Hammurabi in the ancient Babylon, the Neo-Sumerian Code of Ur-Nammu and Torah, a Jewish Law, capital punishment has been employed as a form of punishment for various degrees of offences. This phenomenon has continued to exist despite modern civilisation, and is being used by several countries around the globe today. In Nigeria, capital punishment is and has remained the integral part of the criminal justice system, used as an arrow head for punishing offenders who commit offences classified as capital offences. However, the issue of capital punishment has continued to generate controversies, heated debates and arguments in Nigeria. The thrust of this research is to examine critically Right to life, other related concepts like Euthanasia, abortion and suicide; also, the general concept of capital punishment, the validity of capital punishment in Nigeria, whether capital punishment is a breach of right to life and dignity of human persons, the exceptions of vulnerable from capital punishment, the methods of executing capital punishment in the world, an appraisal of various theories, arguments against and for the use of capital punishment; Finally, this research makes recommendations and suggestions.

RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE...………………………………………………………….………………….. i

ABSTRACT ..…………………………………………………............................................... ii

TABLE OF CASES …………………….…………………………………………………. iii

TABLE OF STATUTES ………...………………………………………………………... ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………….. xi

 

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.1: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY ……………………………………………… 2

1.2: SCOPE OF STUDY ……………………………...……………………………..……... 2

1.3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……………………...………………………………. 2

1.4: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM…………………………………………….…….. 2

1.5: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………...……………...……... 3

1.6: DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS…………………………………………………… 7

1.7: STRUCTURE/BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE WORK…………………………………… 8

CHAPTER 2

RIGHT TO LIFE AND OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

2.0 INTRODUCTION ………………………………...……………………………………. 10

2.1: EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS……………..……………………………..….. 10

2.2: INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT PRESERVING THE RIGHT TO LIFE AGAINST CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ………………………………………………………………… 14

2.2.1: GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS    …………………………..….… 14

2.2.2: REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS  ……………………………….... 15

2.3: DUTY ON THE STATE TO PROTECT LIFE …………..……………………......... 18

2.4: DUTY OF THE STATE NOT TO ENDANGER LIFE   ……………………..……... 20

2.5: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND RIGHT TO LIFE   ………………………...……... 22

2.6: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND RIGHT TO   HUMAN DIGNITY ………..…….. 23

2.7: OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS……………...…………………………………….. 26

2.7.1: EUTHANASIA…………………………………………………………………….. 26

2.7.2: ABORTION………………………………………………………………….…….. 29

2.7.3: SUICIDE……………………………………………………………………..…….. 31

2.8: CONCLUSION…………………………………...………………………………….. 31

CHAPTER 3

EVALUATION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN NIGERIA

3.0: INTRODUCTION……………………………..……………………………………... 32

3.1: HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT….…...……………… 32

3.2: THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT……..……..…………. 35

3.3: OFFENCES PUNISHABLE BY CAPITAL PUNISHMENT……….………..………. 35

3.4: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ON SOME VUNERABLE GROUPS ....………………… 37

3.4.1: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ON JUVENILLES………………………………...……..38

3.4.2: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ON PREGNANT WOMEN ………………………......... 40

3.4.3: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ON THE INSANE/ MENTALLY RETARDED ............. 41

3.4.4: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ON THE AGED ……………………………………… 45

3.5: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………..……………. 46

CHAPTER 4

MODES OF EXECUTING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND WORLDWIDE ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

4.0: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………...…..…………... 47

4.1: MODES OF EXECUTION ……………………………………………...…………... 47

4.1.1 STONING……………………………………………………………….………….. 48

4.1.2 HANGING …………………………………………………………...…………….. 49

4.1.3 SHOOTING OR FIRING SQUAD ……………………………….………………... 50

4.1.4 GAS CHAMBER OR LETHAL GAS MODE OF EXECUTION ……..……………..52

4.1.5: ELECTROCUTION ……………………………………...……………….……….. 53

4.1.6: LETHAL INJECTION ………………………………...…………………………….. 55

4.2: WORLD WIDE ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL PUNISMENT …...…………..…………. 56

4.2.1: CONTINENTAL ANALYSIS …………………………………...………………... 57

4.2.2: COUNTRY ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………….. 58

4.4: CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………….……….. 59

CHAPTER 5

JUSTIFICATIONS FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND ITS ABOLITION

5.0: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………….…………….. 60

5.1: JUSTIFICATIONS FOR CAPITAL PUNISHMENT …………………………..…….. 60

5.1.1: RELIGIOUS APPROVAL …………………………………………….…………... 60

5.1.2: RETRIBUTION ………………………………………………………..………….. 61

5.1.3 DETERRENCE …………………………………………………………………….. 63

5.1.4 INCAPACITATION ……………………………………………………………….. 65

5.1.5: ARGUMENTS BASED ON THE SCOPE OF THE DEATH PENALTY ..................66

5.1.6: ARGUMENTS BASED ON THE KILLING OF A LOVED ONE. ............................ 67

5.1.7: INTERNATIONAL LAW DOES NOT PROHIBIT THE DEATH PENALTY ......... 68

5.1.8: ARGUMENTS BASED ON PUBLIC OPINION ………………..………………... 68

5.2: ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT ………………….…………………….. 69

5.2.1 INFRINGEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS ……………………..…………………... 69

5.2.2: RISKS TO THE INNOCENT AND JUDICIAL ERROR ……..………………….. 72

5.2.3: ARBITRARY APPLICATION ON THE POOR ……...…………………………... 74

5.2.4: DISCRIMINATELY APPLICATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE ……………… 74

5.2.5: COST OF EXECUTION ...………………………………………………………… 76

5.3: "LIFE IN PRISON WITHOUT PAROLE:" AN ALTERNATIVE TO DEATH PENALTY. ………………………………………………………………………….......... 76

5.4: WAY FORWARD …………………………………..………………………………… 77

5.5: CONCLUSION ……………………………………..……………………………….. 78

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.0: CONCLUSION ..…..………………………………………………………………... 79

6.1: RECOMMENDATIONS ..……..……………………………………………………. 81

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCE LIST…...……………………………………………… 83

BOOKS………………………………………..………………………………………….. 83

CONFERENCE PAPERS ………………………...……………………………………… 83

DICTIONARIES……………………………………….…………………………………. 83

ARTICLES IN JOURNALS ……………………………………………………………... 83

ARTICLES ON THE INTERNET………………………………………………………... 86

OTHER SOURCES …………………………..…………………………………………... 88
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APA

Oyewumi, A (2018). RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 27, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/right-to-life-and-justification-for-and-against-the-abolition-of-capital-punishment-under-human-rights-law

MLA 8th

Adewale, Oyewumi. "RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 27 Apr. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/right-to-life-and-justification-for-and-against-the-abolition-of-capital-punishment-under-human-rights-law . Accessed 27 Feb. 2020.

MLA7

Adewale, Oyewumi. "RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 27 Apr. 2018. Web. 27 Feb. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/right-to-life-and-justification-for-and-against-the-abolition-of-capital-punishment-under-human-rights-law >.

Chicago

Adewale, Oyewumi. "RIGHT TO LIFE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR AND AGAINST THE ABOLITION OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT UNDER HUMAN RIGHTS LAW" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed February 27, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/right-to-life-and-justification-for-and-against-the-abolition-of-capital-punishment-under-human-rights-law