The Challenges of The Doctrine of Separation of Powers Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution

Oyewumi Ayoko 103 PAGES (28184 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) made the theory of separation of powers a fundamental principle of state governance. The 1999 Constitution in different sections vested the powers of government in separate organs of government as follows: Section 4 deals with the Legislative powers; Section 5 deals with the Executive powers, while Section 6 is concerned with Judicial powers. This kind of separation of powers is known as the horizontal separation of powers.

The founders of the doctrine of Separation of power discovered that a water-tight application of the doctrine is not possible. It is in recognition of this fact that the founders of the doctrine developed the principle of checks and balances which empowers each arm of government to serve as a check on the others to ensure that they do not go out of their constitutionally assigned roles. This concept of checks and balances is as well provided for in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended).

Despite these provisions of the constitution, there are presently in Nigeria disputes and controversies concerning the meeting points of the powers allotted the various arms of government. The executive arm of government today appears to dwarf the other arms of government by virtue of the amplitude and plenitude of powers allotted to them by the Constitution. The judicial arms of government appear to be at the receiving end of this power tussle. There are however certain salient areas in the interplay of powers where the three arms of government must converge or meet for the orderly regulation or governance of Nigerian society. This long essay reviewed the hallowed concept of separated powers of government, the doctrine of checks and balances as well as the Independence of Judiciary, the meeting points of the powers and their areas of dislocation. Some recommendations that will uplift the law and practice of separated powers in Nigeria were made.


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE..………………………………………….……….…………..… i

CERTIFICATION PAGE ……...……………………………….……………. ii

DEDICATION …………………………………………….............................. iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ……………………………………….……….......... iv

ABSTRACT ………………………………….................................................. vi

TABLE OF CASES ………………………..……….………………………... vii

TABLE OF STATUTES ………...………………….………………………… ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………...….. x

TABLE OF CONTENTS ……..……………………..…………………........... xi

 

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………… 1

1.1: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY……………………………………….. 1

1.2: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY ………………………………...…4

1.3: SCOPE OF STUDY ………………………………………………………..4

1.4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………………..4

1.5: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ……………………………………….5

1.6: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………. 6

1.7: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………......... 19

1.8: DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS………………..……………………..19

 

CHAPTER TWO

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THEORY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS

2.1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………. 22

2.2  EVOLUTION OF THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS.. 23

2.3 BASIS/JUSTIFICATION FOR SEPARATION OF POWERS ………….. 27

2.4 SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS ON THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS ……………………………………………………………………... 31

 

CHAPTER THREE:

ANALYSIS OF THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA, 1999

3.1     INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………… 33

3.2     BRIEF EVALUATION OF SEPARATION OF POWERS UNDER THE MILITARY REGIME ……………………………………………………………………….. 34

3.3     BRIEF EVALUATION OF SEPARATION OF POWERS UNDER THE PREVIOUS NIGERIAN CONSTITUTIONS ……………………………………. 37

3.4     SEPARATION OF POWERS UNDER THE 1999 CONSTITUTION …40

3.4.1 LEGISLATIVE POWER …………………………………………………………………… 41

3.4.2  EXECUTIVE POWER …………………………………………………….……………….. 43

3.4.3  JUDICIAL POWER ………………………………………………………………………….. 45

3.5     HORIZONTAL SEPARATION OF POWER ………………………………….… 48

3.6     VERTICAL SEPARATION OF POWER …………………………………………. 49

 

CHAPTER FOUR

THE PRINCIPLE OF CHECKS AND BALANCES AND CHALLENGES POSED TO THE DOCTRINE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS

4.1     INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………… 55

4.2     CHECKS AND BALANCES IN NIGERIA  ……………………………………… 55

4.2.1  LEGISLATIVE CHECKS …………………………………………………………………. 57

4.2.1.1 REMOVAL ……………………………………………………………………………………… 57

4.2.1.2 LAW FUNCTION ……………………………………………………………………………. 58

4.2.1.3. APPROPRIATION FUNCTION ……………………………………………………… 58

4.2.1.4. CONFIRMATION FUNCTION ……………………………………………………… 59

4.2.1.5 OVERSIGHT FUNCTION ………………………………………………………………. 60

4.2.1.6. REMUNERATION CHECK …………………………………………………………… 61

4.2.2  EXECUTIVE CHECK ……………………………………………………………… 62

4.2.2.1.  LEGISLATIVE CHECK ………………………………………………………………… 62

4.2.2.2.  JUDICIAL CHECK ……………………………………………………………………….. 64

4.2.3  JUDICIAL CHECK …………………………………………………………………………… 64

4.2.3.1.  JUDICIAL REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………… 64

4.3 CHALLENGES …………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

4.3.1.          LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT …………………………………………………………... 67

4.3.2.          EXECUTIVE LAWLESSNESS …………………………………………………………. 70

4.3.3. INTERFERENCE WITH THE LEADERSHIP OF THE LEGISLATURE ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………… 74

4.3.4. UNCONSTITUTIONAL REMOVAL OF ELECTED OFFICERS …... 76

4.3.5.          LACK OF JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE…………………………….. 77

 

CHAPTER FIVE

GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     CONCLUSION ……………….………………………………………...83

5.2     RECOMMENDATION ………………………………………………...83

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………86

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APA

Oyewumi, A (2020). The Challenges of The Doctrine of Separation of Powers Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 05, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-the-doctrine-of-separation-of-powers-under-the-1999-nigerian-constitution

MLA 8th

Ayoko, Oyewumi. "The Challenges of The Doctrine of Separation of Powers Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 20 Aug. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-the-doctrine-of-separation-of-powers-under-the-1999-nigerian-constitution . Accessed 05 Dec. 2020.

MLA7

Ayoko, Oyewumi. "The Challenges of The Doctrine of Separation of Powers Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 20 Aug. 2020. Web. 05 Dec. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-the-doctrine-of-separation-of-powers-under-the-1999-nigerian-constitution >.

Chicago

Ayoko, Oyewumi. "The Challenges of The Doctrine of Separation of Powers Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed December 05, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-the-doctrine-of-separation-of-powers-under-the-1999-nigerian-constitution