Palm Oil processing yield a considerable quantity of palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fruit fiber (MFF). This has been predominantly used as fuel through direct combustion which is inefficient and polluting. Better grade fuel could be derived through torrefaction. The objectives of the work therefore was to determine the optimum parameters for the conversion of palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fruit fiber (MFF) to high grade fuel via torrefaction. Samples of PKS and MFF were torrefied with a temperature range of 200Â°C to 350Â°C at the step of 30Â°C.
The torrefied product yield were determined by weighing, proximate, ultimate analysis of the torrefied product were determined using A.O.A.C. method. The higher heating value was calculated using Dulong Petit. Percentage torrefied product decreases as the reaction temperature increases, from 71.70% to 56.32% for 200Â°C to 350Â°C. The higher heating value ranges from 8607.6MJ/Kg to 9510.4MJ/Kg for 200Â°C to 350Â°C respectively. Palm kernel shell has higher heating value when compared with mesocarp fruit fiber. PKS at 350Â°C had the highest value for HHV palm kernel shell and mesocarp fruit fibre torrefied.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF PLATES
1.1 Problem statement
2.1 Palm Tree
2.2 Biomass an important source of renewable energy
2.3 Definition of biomass and benefits of biomass fuel to the atmosphere
2.4 Biomass for products currently dependent on petroleum product
2.5 Biomass conversion techniques and method
2.5.1 Biochemical method of conversion
2.5.2 Mechanical method of conversion
2.5.3 Thermochemical method of conversion
3.0 Materials and methods
3.1.1 Equipment used and components
3.2.1 Moisture Content(MC) Determination
3.2.2 Determination of Ash Content(AC)
3.2.3 Determination of Fixed Carbon(FC)
3.2.4 Determination of Volatile Content(VC)
3.2.5 Determination of Hydrogen and Carbon Content
(2018). THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel
"THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL" Afribary. Afribary, 03 Feb. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel. Accessed 10 Jun. 2023.
. "THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL". Afribary, Afribary, 03 Feb. 2018. Web. 10 Jun. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel >.
. "THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL" Afribary (2018). Accessed June 10, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel