THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL

Anonymous User 39 PAGES (6077 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Palm Oil processing yield a considerable quantity of palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fruit fiber (MFF). This has been predominantly used as fuel through direct combustion which is inefficient and polluting. Better grade fuel could be derived through torrefaction. The objectives of the work therefore was to determine the optimum parameters for the conversion of palm kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fruit fiber (MFF) to high grade fuel via torrefaction. Samples of PKS and MFF were torrefied with a temperature range of 200°C to 350°C at the step of 30°C.

The torrefied product yield were determined by weighing, proximate, ultimate analysis of the torrefied product were determined using A.O.A.C. method. The higher heating value was calculated using Dulong Petit. Percentage torrefied product decreases as the reaction temperature increases, from 71.70% to 56.32% for 200°C to 350°C. The higher heating value ranges from 8607.6MJ/Kg to 9510.4MJ/Kg for 200°C to 350°C respectively. Palm kernel shell has higher heating value when compared with mesocarp fruit fiber. PKS at 350°C had the highest value for HHV palm kernel shell and mesocarp fruit fibre torrefied.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF PLATES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    Introduction
1.1    Problem statement
1.2    Objectives
1.3    Justification

CHAPTER TWO
2.0    LITERATURE
2.1    Palm Tree
2.2    Biomass an important source of renewable energy
2.3    Definition of biomass and benefits of biomass fuel to the atmosphere
2.4    Biomass for products currently dependent on petroleum product
2.5    Biomass conversion techniques and method
2.5.1 Biochemical method of conversion
2.5.2 Mechanical method of conversion
2.5.3 Thermochemical method of conversion

CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Materials and methods
3.1     Materials
3.1.1  Equipment used and components
3.2    Methods
3.2.1 Moisture Content(MC) Determination
3.2.2 Determination of Ash Content(AC)
3.2.3 Determination of Fixed Carbon(FC)
3.2.4 Determination of Volatile Content(VC)
3.2.5 Determination of Hydrogen and Carbon Content
3.2.6 Determination of Nitrogen Contents 
3.2.7 Sulphur Content Determination
3.2.8 Determination of Heating value

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1   Result
4.2   Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Conclusion
5.2    Recommendation
        REFERENCES
        APPENDIX

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APA

Anonymous, U (2018). THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 02, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel

MLA 8th

User, Anonymous. "THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 03 Feb. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel . Accessed 02 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

User, Anonymous. "THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 03 Feb. 2018. Web. 02 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel >.

Chicago

User, Anonymous. "THERMAL CONVERSION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL AND MESOCARP FRUIT FIBRE INTO FUEL" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed March 02, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/thermal-conversion-of-palm-kernel-shell-and-mesocarp-fruit-fibre-into-fuel