A Critical Analysis of the Causes of Child Paid Labour in Uganda. Case Study of Kampala District

ABSTRACT 

This research study was undertaken to analyze the causes of child paid labour in Uganda since it is so rampant in Kampala district. The rationale of the study was to raise awareness to policy makers and legislators to come up with appropriate strategies for the purposes of review and reform of the policies and laws on the welfare of the children in Uganda and also to sensitize the entire community about the rights of the child and the children at large. The study identified the different forms of child paid labour, underlying causes and effects of child paid labour, establishing the statement of the problem and made recommendations for intervention. It was generally established that child paid labour is an obstacle to developmental programmes. The high rate of child labour is mainly attributed to poverty, HIV/AIDS, low incomes, culture, weak laws, invisible phenomenon, population growth, armed conflict, limited access to education opportunities, employment, gender, social attitudes and ignorance, irresponsible parenthood, agriculture and orphan hood. It was noted that child paid labour exists in all its forms and is mainly targeting the poverty affected people and the vulnerable children. Solutions suggested to child labour included; stronger government intervention, training and awareness raising, Facilitation of the Universal Primary Education Programme to be improved and stronger bye laws should be implemented.



TABLE OF CONTENT

DECLARATION A. ....................................... : ............... , .................................................................... i

DECLARATION 8 ............................................................................................................................ ii

ACKNOWLEGEMENT .................................................................................................................... iii

LIST OF STATUTES ...................................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................ v

TABLE OF CONTENT .................................................................................................................... vi

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... xiii

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... xiii

LIST OF ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................. xiv

CHAPTER ONE ....................................................................................................... : ........... 1

GENERAL BACKGROUND ................................................................................................ 1

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Background of the study ....................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ..................................................................................................... 5

1.3 General Objectives ................................................................................................................. 6

1.4 Specific Objectives of the study ........................................................................................... 6

1.5 Research Questions ................................................................................................................ 6

1.6 Scope of the study ................................................................................................................. 6

1. 7 Significance of the study ....................................................................................................... 6

1.8 Research.Methodology .......................................................................................................... 7

1.8.1 Research design .................................................................................................................. 7

1.8.2 Study design ........................................................................................................................ 7

1.8.3 Target population ................................................................................................................ 8

1.8.4 Research instruments ......................................................................................................... 8

1.8.4.1 Library method ................................................................................................................. 8

1.8.4.2 Observation method ........................................................................................................ 8

1.9 Literature Review .................................................................................................................... 9

1.10 Definitions of the key terms ............................................................................................ 22

1.11 Scheme of the Study/synopsis ......................................................................................... 23

CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................... 24

NATURE AND EXTENT OF CHILD LABOUR ................................................................ 24

2.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 24

2.1 Forms of child paid labour .................................................................................................. 24

2.2.1 Domestic labour ................................................................................................................ 24

2.2.2 Commercial sexual exploitation of children ................................................................... 25

2.2.3 Child slavery ....................................................................................................................... 25

2.2.4 Smuggling .......................................................................................................................... 25

2.2.5 Manual labour .................................................................................................................... 26

2.2.6 Child trafficking .................................................................................................................. 26

2.2.7 Street Children ................................................................................................................... 27

2.2.8 Self employed children ..................................................................................................... 27

2.2.9 Trash collecting ................................................................................................................. 27

2.3 FACTORS LEADING TO CHILD PAID LABOUR IN UGANDA ........................................... 27

CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................. 36

EXISTING POLICY, INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON CHILD PAID LABOUR .......................................................... 36

3.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 36

3.1 Legal frame work in addressing child labour ................................................................... 36

3.1.1 The 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda ....................................................... 36

3.1.2 The Children's Act Cap 59 ................................................................................................ 37

3.1.3 The Local Government Act Cap (243) ........................................................................... 38

3.1.4 The Employment Act No 6 of 2006 ................................................................................ 38

3.1.5 The Penal Code Act Cap 120 ........................................................................................... 38

3.1.6 The Domestic Violence Act (2010) .............................................................................. , .. 39

3.1.7 The Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (2009) ................................................... 39

3. 1.8 The Education Act No 3 of 2008 ................................................................................... 40

3.2 International Legal Instruments ........................................................................................ .41

3.2.1 ILO Convention No. 138 Minimum Age Admission to Employment 1973 .......... .' .... .41

3.2.2 ILO Convention 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor1984 ............................................. .42

3.2.3 The ILO Convention No. 182 of 1999 ............................................................................ 42

3.2.4 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (C.R.C) 1989 ........................ 42

3.2.5 The International Convenient on Economic, Social and Cultural rights .................. .44

3.2.6 UN Convention for the Suppression of the Trafficked in Persons and Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949) ....................... 44

3.2.7 UN commission on the status of women, Eliminating Demand for Trafficked Women and Girls for all forms of Exploitation in the Report of 49th Session .................. .44

3.2.8 Report of Sigma Huda, the UN special Rapporteur on labour in persons, especially Women and Children ................................. .44

3.3 Regional Treaties for Africa ................................................................................................ .45

3.3.1 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Children, 1990 ............................ .45

3.4 Government and Non Governmental Organizations Interventions for dealing with children affected by labour................................ 46

3.5 Government Programmes and policies ............................................................................ .48

3.6 Challenges encountered in enforcing such Laws and policies ................................ 54

3. 7 conclusion ...................................................... , ........................................................... 57

CHAPTER FOUR ............................................................................................................... 58

EFFECTS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO CHILD PAID LABOUR ......................... 58

4.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 58

4.1 Negative effects .................................................................................................................... 58

4.1.2 Health and safety hazards ............................................................................................... 58

4.1.3 Psychological and social effects ...................................................................................... 60

4.1.3 Physical work hazards ...................................................................................................... 60

4.1.4 Drug Abuse ........................................................................................................................ 61

4.1.5 Loss of cultural norms and values .................................................................................. 61

4.1.6 Insecurity ........................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.7 Rebellion ............................................................................................................................. 62

4.1.8 Lack of patriotism .............................................................................................................. 62

4.1.9 School dropouts ................................................................................................................. 63

4.1.10 Early marriage, slavery and servitude ......................................................................... 64

4.2 Positive effects of child paid Labour .................................................................................. 64

4.3 Possible solutions ................................................................................................................. 65

4. 3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 68

CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................................ 69

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................ 69

5.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 69

5.1 FINDINGS .............................................................................................................................. 69

5.2 Recommendations ................................................................................................................ 72

5.2.1 Sensitization ....................................................................................................................... 72

5.2.2 Health .................................................................................................................................. 72

5.2.3 The Political commitment to Enforce Laws ................................................................... 73

5.2.4 Family planning ................................................................................................................. 73

5.2.5 Health Environment for the NGO's ................................................................................. 73

5.2.6 Research ............................................................................................................................. 74

5.2.7 Direct assistance ............................................................................................................... 75

5.2.8 Allocation of more funds to the government entities .................................................. 76

5.2.9 Revision of Universal Primary Education and Universal Secondary Education Programmes in Uganda .......................................... 76

5.2.10 Implementation of Labour Laws and Policies in the Country .................................. 76

5.2.11 Strengthening Micro Finance ......................................................................................... 77

5.2.12 Child monitoring .............................................................................................................. 77

5.2.13 Poverty Reduction ........................................................................................................... 78

5.2.14 Establishment of remand homes and rehabilitation centres .................................... 78

5.2.15 Practical measures to implement the international instruments ............................. 78

5.2.16 Bye laws ........................................................................................................................... 78

5.2.17 Special programme for orphans ................................................................................... 79

5.3 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 79

5.3 Recommendations for Further Research .......................................................................... 80

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 81

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APA

Consults, E. & SARAH, N (2023). A Critical Analysis of the Causes of Child Paid Labour in Uganda. Case Study of Kampala District. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-of-the-causes-of-child-paid-labour-in-uganda-case-study-of-kampala-district

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and NALUBEGA SARAH "A Critical Analysis of the Causes of Child Paid Labour in Uganda. Case Study of Kampala District" Afribary. Afribary, 18 Jan. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-of-the-causes-of-child-paid-labour-in-uganda-case-study-of-kampala-district. Accessed 22 May. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and NALUBEGA SARAH . "A Critical Analysis of the Causes of Child Paid Labour in Uganda. Case Study of Kampala District". Afribary, Afribary, 18 Jan. 2023. Web. 22 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-of-the-causes-of-child-paid-labour-in-uganda-case-study-of-kampala-district >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and SARAH, NALUBEGA . "A Critical Analysis of the Causes of Child Paid Labour in Uganda. Case Study of Kampala District" Afribary (2023). Accessed May 22, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-of-the-causes-of-child-paid-labour-in-uganda-case-study-of-kampala-district

Document Details
NALUBEGA SARAH Field: Law Type: Thesis 98 PAGES (26891 WORDS) (pdf)