"A Critical Analysis On the Application of JHL in Armed Conflicts", Case Study Syria:

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CERTIFICATION .................................................................................................................................... 1

APPROVAL .............................................................................................................................................. 2

DEDICATION .......................................................................................................................................... 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................ 4

LIST OF ABBREVIATION ..................................................................................................................... 5

LIST OF STATUTES ............................................................................................................................... 6

LIST OF CASES ....................................................................................................................................... 7

I .0. General Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 11

Background to the Study; ........................................................................................................................ 11

1.2. Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................................. 12

1.3. Objectives of the Research ............................................................................................................... 12

1.4. Research Questions .......................................................................................................................... 12

1.6. Research Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 13

I. 7. Limitations of the Research ............................................................................................................. 13

1.8. Literature Review ............................................................................................................................. 13

1.9. Overview of the Research ................................................................................................................ 16

CHAPTER TWO: ....................................................................................................................................... 17

IHL; HISTORY. SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ARMED CONFLICTS ................................ 17

2.0. lntroduction ...................................................................................................................................... 17

2.1. Historical Background of IHL ......................................................................................................... 17

2.2. Sources of 11-IL. ................................................................................................................................ 21

2.2.1. Treaties: Geneva Convention and Hague Law .......................................................................... 21

.2.2.2.The Development of the Geneva Conventions .......................................................................... 21

2.2.3 Additional Protocols ................................................................................................................... 22

2.2 .S.Hague Law ................................................................................................................................ 23

2.2.6 The Hague Conventions ............................................................................................................. 23

2.2. 7 Customary International Law ..................................................................................................... 23

8

2.2.8 Martens Clause ........................................................................................................................... 25

2.3.0 Definition and Classification of Armed Conflict. ...................................................................... 27

2.3.1. Definition ofiHL ...................................................................................................................... 27

2.3.2. Classification of armed conflicts ............................................................................................... 27

2.3.3 International armed conflict (IAC) ............................................................................................. 28

2.3.4 Non International Armed Conflicts (NIAC) .............................................................................. 29

2.4. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 33

CHAPTER THREE: .................................................................................................................................... 34

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE SYRIAN CONFLICT: ............................................................ 34

3.0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 34

3.1. Syria after the Ottoman Empire ....................................................................................................... 34

3.2. The Historical Mosaic of Syrian Society ......................................................................................... 35

3.4. Demography ..................................................................................................................................... 36

3.5. Syrian Groupings ............................................................................................................................. 36

5.6. Assad senior from 1970-2000 .......................................................................................................... 37

3.7.Basharjunior Succession Period 2000-2011 ..................................................................................... 39

3.7.1. Weakened and Diffuse Opposition ............................................................................................... 40

3.7.2. The Syrian Economy ................................................................................................................. 40

3.7.3. A Two Speedy Economy ........................................................................................................... 41

3.7.4. Increasing Poverty ..................................................................................................................... 41

3.7.5. The Vulnerability of Syrian Society and the Risk ofSpillover ................................................. 42

3.8. Rising Discontent In 20 11 ................................................................................................................ 43

3.9. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 44

CHAPTER FOUR: EXAMINING OF EXTERNAL ELEMENTS IN SYRIAN CONFLICT .................. 44

4.0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 44

4.1. Saudi Arabia ..................................................................................................................................... 44

4.2.The West and the Gulf ...................................................................................................................... 45

. 4.3. Qatar ............................................................................................................................................... 46

4.4. Egypt ................................................................................................................................................ 46

4.5.Iraqand Jordan ................................................................................................................................... 46

4.6. Turkey .............................................................................................................................................. 47

4.7. Lebanon ............................................................................................................................................ 47

4.8. Russia ............................................................................................................................................... 48

9

4.9. China ................................................................................................................................................ 48

4.1 0. Iran ................................................................................................................................................. 48

4.11. France ............................................................................................................................................. 49

4.12.The UK ............................................................................................................................................ 49

4.13. The US ........................................................................................................................................... 49

4.14. Conclusion ...................... , .............................................................................................................. 51

CHAPTER FIVE: CHALLENGES INAPPL!CA TION OF IHL IN SYRIAN ARMED CONFLICT ... 52

5.0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 52

5.1. Controversies in Distinction in IHL of Armed Conflict in Syria ..................................................... 52

5.1.1. The Level of Organization ........... , ............................................................................................ 55

5.1.2. Propensity .................................................................................................................................. 56

5.2. Syria Is Not A Contracting Party To Additional Protocol II... ......................................................... 57

5.3. Protection of Civilians in Syria ............................................................................... , ........................ 57

5.4. Criminal Prosecution ........................................................................................................................ 50

5.5. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 62

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................ 63

6.0. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 63

6.2. Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 64

6.2.1. Syrian Government to Sign and Be a Pa1ty to Rome Statute of ICC ........................................ 64

6.2.2. Application official AND HRL in Syria ................................................................................. 64

6.2.3. Syrian conflict should be officially taken as a NIAC ................................................................ 65


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APA

GODIWINE, M (2022). "A Critical Analysis On the Application of JHL in Armed Conflicts", Case Study Syria:. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-on-the-application-of-jhl-in-armed-conflicts-case-study-syria

MLA 8th

GODIWINE, MAANIGARUHANGA ""A Critical Analysis On the Application of JHL in Armed Conflicts", Case Study Syria:" Afribary. Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-on-the-application-of-jhl-in-armed-conflicts-case-study-syria. Accessed 08 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

GODIWINE, MAANIGARUHANGA . ""A Critical Analysis On the Application of JHL in Armed Conflicts", Case Study Syria:". Afribary, Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022. Web. 08 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-on-the-application-of-jhl-in-armed-conflicts-case-study-syria >.

Chicago

GODIWINE, MAANIGARUHANGA . ""A Critical Analysis On the Application of JHL in Armed Conflicts", Case Study Syria:" Afribary (2022). Accessed February 08, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/a-critical-analysis-on-the-application-of-jhl-in-armed-conflicts-case-study-syria