A Projection Report on the Effect of Geometric Properties (Shape) on the Strength of Interlocking Paving Stone

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                               i

Certificate                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                             iii

Acknowledgment                                                                   iv

Table of Contents                                                                  vi

List of Tables                                                                         ix

List of Figures                                                                       x

List of Plates                                                                          xi

Abstract                                                                                xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1    Introduction                                                                 1

1.2    Aims and Objective of the Project                                3

1.3    Justification of the Study                                             4

1.4    Scope of the Project                                                      4

1.5    Proposed Methodology                                                  5

CHAPTER TWO:

2.0.   Literature Review 

 2.1  Preamble                                                                      6

2.2    Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks                      7

2.3    Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks            10

2.4    Laying Patterns                                                            13

 2.5  Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks             16

2.6    Materials Involved                                                       17

2.6.1 Granite (Stone Dust)                                                   17

2.6.2 Cement                                                                        18

2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production          20

2.6.4 Water                                                                           20

CHAPTER THREE

3.1      Procurement of the material components                   22

3.2      Equipment used in interlocking paving stone

         production                                                                    22

3.3      Mix Ratio                                                                     23

3.4      Determination of the Quantities of Materials              24

3.5      Sieve Analysis  of the Material                                     24

3.6      Experimental Tests                                                      25

3.6.1 Compressive strength test                                          25

3.6.2 Flexural Strength Test                                                26


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0.   Analysis of Result and Discussion                              29

4.1.   Material Tests Performed on the Materials and

Samples                                                                        29

4.2.   Material Tests                                                               29

4.3.   Determination of Quantity of Materials                      30

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0.   Conclusions and Recommendations                               38

5.1      Conclusions                                                                  38

5.2      Recommendation                                                         39

References                                                                    40


LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per

Each Shape                                                          32

Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust               33

Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking

paving stones                                                        34

Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving

blocks produced in laboratory                               35

Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                    35

Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                     36

Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                     36

Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                    37


 

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1a:   Small element pavement structure                     8

Fig 2.1b:   Load spreading in the small element top

layer through shear forces in the joints              8

Fig 2.3a:   Categories of Block shapes                                  11

Fig 2.4a:   Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles          14

Fig 2.4b:   Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks

and concrete blocks                                           16

Fig 4.1:     Particle size distribution for quarry dust            43

 

 

 

        

 

 

 


LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles

Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles

Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles

Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles

Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles

Plate 6A:  Crushing of the materials in progress

Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials 


ABSTRACT

         Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface. This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water. The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.    So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2  

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APA

Frontiers, E. & AYODEJI, I (2021). A Projection Report on the Effect of Geometric Properties (Shape) on the Strength of Interlocking Paving Stone. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-projection-report-on-the-effect-of-geometric-properties-shape-on-the-strength-of-interlocking-paving-stone

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and ISSA AYODEJI "A Projection Report on the Effect of Geometric Properties (Shape) on the Strength of Interlocking Paving Stone" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/a-projection-report-on-the-effect-of-geometric-properties-shape-on-the-strength-of-interlocking-paving-stone. Accessed 22 May. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and ISSA AYODEJI . "A Projection Report on the Effect of Geometric Properties (Shape) on the Strength of Interlocking Paving Stone". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021. Web. 22 May. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/a-projection-report-on-the-effect-of-geometric-properties-shape-on-the-strength-of-interlocking-paving-stone >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and AYODEJI, ISSA . "A Projection Report on the Effect of Geometric Properties (Shape) on the Strength of Interlocking Paving Stone" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 22, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/a-projection-report-on-the-effect-of-geometric-properties-shape-on-the-strength-of-interlocking-paving-stone