A review of mortality differential


Abere, OmotayoJohncally([email protected])

Department of Actuarial Science & Insurance, University of Lagos


Mojekwu, Joseph Nnamdi (Corresponding Author)

Department of Actuarial Science & Insurance, University of Lagos


E-mail: [email protected]



Introduction: Mortality differentials can be described as those determinants or indicators that measure relative differences in the timing of death between different groups. They measure mortality risks of one group relative to that of another group.The reduction in mortality within a country/region is a major objective of the government and international organizations. To achieve this goal, determinants of high mortality among disadvantaged people, communities and regions need to be identified. Methods which enable the analysis of the relationship between mortality differential determinants need to be reviewed in such a way to accurately identify how inequalities operate at different levels/regions.

Objective: The specific objective of this research is to analytically review the mortality differentials in order to identify high risk cases towards where health programs can be channeled or intensified. The review wasmajorly focused on gender, causes of deaths and income level differentials.

Data and Methods:In the course of this study, different methods and strategies of investigations were conceived to gather data/materials related to the study in order to have comprehensive knowledge on the subject matter based on the flexibility of approach. The major data were got from the publications and surveys of health or health related organizations. The two statistical tools used in this research are descriptive and inferential.

Setting: The geographical location of this research is not only limited to Nigeria but also explores situations in Africa and the world as a whole, although special attention was paid to cases in Nigeria.

Results:Male mortality and female life expectancy are higher at all ages in most countries across the globe. In Nigeria, most deaths (in rank) arise from lower respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV/AIDS and malaria, while the leading causes of deaths (in rank) in Africa as a whole are lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS, diarrhea diseases and ischaemic heart diseases. In the world (as a whole), ischaemic heart diseases and stroke are leading causes of deaths. Most deaths in lower income group are due to causes that are frequently preventable or treatable through access to basic health services, while most deaths in higher income group are frequently associated with environmental factors and/or natural disasters.

Conclusion: In order to minimize the differences in health outcomes and maximize the health gains, responses that are aimed at mitigating exposure to risk factors and/or adequate access to health services should be employed. Also, systems should be put in place for collecting information on mortality determinants/indicators in order to identify how inequalities operate at different levels or regions. Emphasis should be laid on the role of medicine, importance of public health care services, effects of alcohol, anti-smoking/malaria/HIV campaigns, and so on.


KEYWORDS: differentials, gender, income levels, mortality, causes of deaths.

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Abere, O. & joseph, M (2019). A review of mortality differential. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-review-of-mortality-differential

MLA 8th

Abere, Omotayo johncally, and Mojekwu Joseph "A review of mortality differential" Afribary. Afribary, 06 Oct. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/a-review-of-mortality-differential. Accessed 13 Jun. 2024.


Abere, Omotayo johncally, and Mojekwu Joseph . "A review of mortality differential". Afribary, Afribary, 06 Oct. 2019. Web. 13 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/a-review-of-mortality-differential >.


Abere, Omotayo johncally and Joseph, Mojekwu . "A review of mortality differential" Afribary (2019). Accessed June 13, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/a-review-of-mortality-differential