Natural & Applied Sciences

Research Papers/Topics in Natural & Applied Sciences

Orchestrating “Irreducible simplicity” in science and science communication: Positioning “irreducible simplicity” as a vital guiding principle for effective and bona fide science

This paper, which is perhaps our umpteenth and umptieth on scientific method and scientific methodology, proposes, discusses and lays bare the canon of what we propose to call “irreducible simplicity”. We believe and hypothesize that this approach would encompass, and play a natural, pivotal and a vital role in all aspects and facets of scientific activity from the cradle to the grave such as grounds-up hypothesis conceptualization, hypothesis building, detailed hypothesis specification, ...

Variation of Silicon in Soils and Maize Plants along Altitudinal Gradients and its Relationship with Distribution of Lepidoptera Stem Borers

Abstract: Maize is the main staple crop of most communities of the East African mountains but the yield is affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. While soil nutrients increase the maize yields, infestation of maize fields by Lepidopteran pests such as, Chilo partellus (Crambidae) and Busseola fusca (Noctuidae) generally reduces the yields. In addition to enhancing maize yields, some soil elements such as silicon (Si) aid plants in overcoming abiotic and biotic stresses. Hence, any fact...

Molecular Analysis of the Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Gene in the Anopheles Gambiae s.l. and Anopheles Funestus Populations in Kenya

ABSTRACT Insecticide resistance affects the re-emergence of vector borne diseases and their control. Resistance to insecticides poses a risk to compromise the role of chemical vector control as a component of the integrated vector management. The kdr (knock down resistance) allele is characterised by a single base pair substitution causing a change from leu to phe (West Africa) or leu to see (East African) in codon 1014 of the voltage sensitive sodium channel protein sequence. In Ke...

Metabolism of Phosphoenolpyruvate Derived from Glucose Catabolism by Bloodstream Trypanosoma Congolense

The main purpose of this study was to establish the pathway(s) by which PEP from glucose catabolism is catabolised , the end products formed in the presence and absence of SHAM, the sub cellular localisation of some key enzymes involved in PEP catabolism and to partially characterise PEPCK in bloodstream T. congolense. 

Isolation and Characterization of Tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) Attractive Compounds from Calcurnia aurea

ABSTRACT Ticks pose a major challenge and economic burden to livestock rearing as they inflict physical injury and transmit diseases resulting in heavy losses of livestock. Their control has relied mainly on the use of synthetic acaricides which are expensive and hazardous to the environment and non-target organisms. Intensive use of these acaricides has also resulted in tick resistance. Plant extracts could provide a viable alternative to tick control and management strategies. Calpurnia...

Host Range of Sturmiopsis Parasitica (Currran) (Diptera;Tachinidae) and Interspecific competition with Cotesa Sesamiae (Cameron)(Hymenoptera:Braconidae) in kenya

Abstract: Cereal stemborers in Kenya include Busseola fusca, B. phaia, Sesamia calamistis, S. botanephaga, Eldana saccharina, Chilo orichalcociliellus, and Ch. partellus. The stemborers cause 50% yield losses in cereal crops including maize, sorghum, and sugarcane. Damage to the host plants results from the feeding and excavating of tunnels by the larvae. The different stemborer control options include pesticides, early planting, intercropping with non-cereals, and host plant resistance. ...

Biochemical signal in the Tri-Tropic interaction between Anacardium Occidentae,Pseudotheraptus way and Oecophylla Longinoda

Abstract: The relationship between Pseudotheraptus wayi (cashew pest), Anacardium occidentale (cashew plant), and Oecophylla longinoda (natural enemy) is a trophic interaction that is very important in cashew nut production. However, the chemical ecology of the interaction, specifically between the cashew plant and natural enemy as well as the pest and natural enemy was little investigated. Based on the hypothesis that both interactions were mediated by chemical signals, the objective of thi...

An interaction model between Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae, parasitoids of the gramineous stem-borers at the Kenya Coast

Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing the people of sub-Saharan Africa is the production of sufficient food to feed a rapidly increasing population in the face of dwindling finances. As the population grows at 3% and food production at 2% per annum, an annual shortage of 250 million tons of food is expected by year 2020. The greatest obstacle to increasing the production of maize and sorghum, the staple food in many African communities south of the Sahara, is damage by phytophagous...

Determination of the Putative Insect Vector of Napier Grass Stunt Phytoplasma using Molecular and Bioassay techniques in Western Kenya

Abstract: Sampling insects in and around Napier grass fields revealed that 21 Homopteran insect species exploit Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach 1827) canopy. Leafhopper Cicadulina sp., and plant hoppers; Leptodelphax dymas Young, and Sogatella manentho Horvath, are the most dominant Napier canopy insects. This study developed a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification of DNA (LAMP) for rapid detection of phytoplasma 16S rDNA. LAMP was simple, sensitive, specific, robust and very ra...

PCR-high Resolution Melting Analysis of the COI, cyt b and 16S rRNA Mini-barcode Genes: A Tool for Species Identification and Discrimination in Illegal Bushmeat Trade

Abstract: Reliable molecular identification of vertebrate species from morphologically unidentifiable tissue is critical to the prosecution of illegally traded wildlife products to limit their trade, as well us for surveillance to inform conservation policies and identification of blood-meal hosts. Currently, this is mainly dependent on sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) ‘barcode’ genes, which remains costly for purposes of screening large numbers of unknown samples a...

Nanotechnology in Electronics

Nano electronics are part of the nanotechnology domain, which deals with the characterization, manipulation and fabrication of the electronic devices at the Nano scale. Nano electronics is one of the major technologies of Nanotechnology. 

Is sexual dimorphism in morphometric variables of the proximal femur moderated by age in adulthood? A cross-sectional study in Ghana

Ageing may impact proximal femoral morphometry in both males and females. However, it is not clear whether the observed sexual dimorphism is attributable to an ageing effect in the post-pubertal period. The potential effect of ageing on sexual dimorphism in the proximal femur is most significantly relevant for forensic and osteoarchaeological research. The study was cross-sectional and comprised 123 participants (females = 72 and males = 51), who were recorded between January 2017 and June 20...

Is sexual dimorphism in morphometric variables of the proximal femur moderated by agein adulthood? Across-sectional study in Ghana

Ageing may impact proximal femoral morphometry in both males and females. However, it is not clear whether the observed sexual dimorphism is attributable to an ageing effect in the post-pubertal period. The potential effect of ageing on sexual dimorphism in the proximal femur is most significantly relevant for forensic and osteoarchaeological research. The study was cross-sectional and comprised 123 participants (females = 72 and males = 51), who were recorded between January 2017 and June 20...

New Approach of Solving Quadratic Equation

Abstract The objective of this present work is to introduce a new method of solving quadratic equations different from the existing methods. In this paper, we explicitly explain the new method and carefully discussed the conditions necessary for using this new approach. Finally, we apply our new approach to solve some questions and compare the result with the existing methods and results coincide. KEYWORD: The following are the keywords to be discuss namely; Affected quadratic equation,Absolu...

Evaluation of an Algorithm of Software Defects of Understandability Using a New Metric of Software

Abstract:  Prudence is one of the important features of software quality, as it can affect the stability of software. The cost and reuse of software is also likely to make sense. To maintain software, programmers have to understand the source code. The understanding of source code depends on the psychological complexity of the software, and cognitive abilities are required to understand the source code. The understanding of source code is influenced by so many factors, here we have taken var...


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