A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY OF CODE-MIXING AND CODE-SWITCHING IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN UNDERGRADUATES’ CONVERSATIONS

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ABSTRACT
 
 For communication to be effective in any human society, the appropriate language must be put in to use in the appropriate context. This work examined the motivation for code-mixing and code-switching among undergraduates. The natural conversations of some undergraduates of the University of Ilorin were recorded, and analysed and it was found that code-switching is a display of bilinguals’ competence while code-mixing is a sign of vocabulary inadequacy in first language (L1). It is noteworthy however, that both code-mixing and code-switching were not only found among the Yoruba undergraduates on our campus but are equally prevalent among Hausa and Igbo undergraduates in their bid to communicate effectively with one another. Our conclusion is that bilingualism/multilingualism has taken its toll on these students who are confronted with two or more languages on their learning environment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Title page          i
Certification          ii
Dedication          iii
Acknowledgements         iv
Table of contents         vi
Abstract          viii
CHAPTER ONE 
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 
1.0 Introduction         1
1.1 Aims and objectives        2
1.2 Justification         3
1.3 Significance of the study       3
1.4 Scope and Delimitation       4 
1.5 Methodology         5
CHAPTER TWO 
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction         6
2.1 Sociolinguistics        6
2.2 Scope of sociolinguistics       8
2.3 Concepts of sociolinguistics       9 
2.3.1 Speech community        9
2.3.2 Language contact        11
2.3.3 Multilingualism/Bilingualism      12
2.3.3.1 Types of Multilingualism/Bilingualism     13
2.3.4 Effects of Bilingualism/Multilingualism     15 
2.3.4.1 Diglossia         15
2.3.4.2 Code-switching        17
2.3.4.3 Code-mixing        21
2.3.4.4 Differences between code-mixing and code-switching  22
2.3.4.5 Reasons for code-mixing       23
2.3.4.6 Categorization of code-mixing      25
CHAPTER THREE 
DATA ANALYSIS  
3.0 Introduction         26
3.1 Data presentation and analysis      27
3.2 Conclusion         39
CHAPTER FOUR   
 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 
4.0 Introduction         40
4.1 Summary         40
4.2 Findings                                                                                              41
4.3 Recommendation        42
4.4 Conclusion         43
 Bibliography        44
 
INTRODUCTION

One aspect of language study that attracts much attention today is sociolinguistics. It examines the use of language by considering social parameter. This field is relatively wide and it encompasses a lot of variables like the context of the situation, age, status etc. among other variables that can be found in sociolinguistics are code mixing, diglossia, Code-switching, language death etc.
Code-mixing and code-switching are important aspect of sociolinguistic given their use and status in the society. Different reasons have been advanced by various writers and scholars as to why people code-mix and code-switch. Whatever the reasons, they are to some extent reasonable. However, it obvious that they have both the negative and positive effects closely associated with them. It there becomes necessary that these concepts which are directly related to human society and our educational system be given adequate attention so that they are known and also used effectively where necessarily. 
In a society where individuals speak more than one language there is usually a language that is naturally influenced by the others. Some of the effects of multilingualism are code-mixing and code-switching, bilingualism, diglossia etc when a speaker comes in contact with two or more languages he or she may start to use the languages together even though it might not be with equal proficiency. However these languages affect one another and often lead to code-mixing and code-switching. 
Code-mixing and code-switching occurs when elements of two or more languages are mixed between sentences, clauses and phrases. These concepts are products of bilingualism and they are the focus of this research work. Some researches have shown that students code-mix and code-switch in order to be admitted into some social situations. 
It is on this note that this research work intends to find out if undergraduates of University of Ilorin code-mix and code-switch, and also intend to find out why if they code-mix and code-switch. Thus in carrying out this research work, code-mixing and code-switching as concepts of sociolinguistics will be given attention thereby bringing it to the notice of the people who are not linguistics. 
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY OF CODE-MIXING AND CODE-SWITCHING IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN UNDERGRADUATES’ CONVERSATIONS. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/a-sociolinguistic-study-of-code-mixing-and-code-switching-in-nigerian-institutions-a-study-of-university-of-ilorin-undergraduates-rsquo-conversations-4453

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY OF CODE-MIXING AND CODE-SWITCHING IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN UNDERGRADUATES’ CONVERSATIONS" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/a-sociolinguistic-study-of-code-mixing-and-code-switching-in-nigerian-institutions-a-study-of-university-of-ilorin-undergraduates-rsquo-conversations-4453. Accessed 10 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY OF CODE-MIXING AND CODE-SWITCHING IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN UNDERGRADUATES’ CONVERSATIONS". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/a-sociolinguistic-study-of-code-mixing-and-code-switching-in-nigerian-institutions-a-study-of-university-of-ilorin-undergraduates-rsquo-conversations-4453 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY OF CODE-MIXING AND CODE-SWITCHING IN NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS: A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN UNDERGRADUATES’ CONVERSATIONS" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/a-sociolinguistic-study-of-code-mixing-and-code-switching-in-nigerian-institutions-a-study-of-university-of-ilorin-undergraduates-rsquo-conversations-4453