Advocacy And Women’s Rights In Lagos And Ogun States, Nigeria (1999-2015)


The need to promote and protect women’s rights has occupied the frontline of global development agenda for over four decades. From the Millennium Development Goals (SDGs) to the ongoing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the gender question and its intersection with women’s rights have been linked with the attainment of sustainable development around the world. Despite the use of varied unilateral and multilateral advocacy tools by state and non-state actors in addressing the question of women’s rights over the years, violation of women’s rights is still on the increase. In Nigeria, civil and political rights of women are underrepresented in governance and leadership position. Similarly, economic and socio-cultural rights of women remain deplorable due to the consequences of urban renewal efforts, discriminatory cultural beliefs, and gender biased laws (for example section 353 and 360 of the Criminal Code). This study, relying on feminist theoretical framework, which emphasizes the necessity of respect and protection of women as vulnerable, marginalized, and oppressed group, examines the effectiveness or otherwise of selected advocacy tools (namely E-advocacy, celebrity advocacy, non-profit and policy advocacy) in the promotion and protection of women’s Civil and Political Rights (CPR), and Economic, Cultural and Social (ECOSOC) rights in Lagos and Ogun States Nigeria, between 1999 and 2015.The study employed a mixed method design which include 614 structured questionnaire, 5 Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and 15 interviews to investigate the effectiveness of these advocacy tools. The formulated hypotheses was tested using logistic correlation, cross tabulation, and chi-square, while the qualitative data gathered from interview and FGD sessions were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis and narrative techniques. The research findings revealed that a critical and creative engagement of the four advocacy tools selected for the study could be useful in promoting women’s rights but not necessarily in enforcing protection. This was corroborated by empirical data gleaned from the use of primary sources adopted above. The challenges of advocacy in protecting women’s rights amongst others was due to discriminatory nature of the tripartite legal system in Nigeria, overriding influence of religion and patriarchy, inability to domesticate international legal frameworks well as the lack of political will to make gender question a national priority. The study further showed that most respondents and key informants considered E-advocacy as the most viable tool for promoting women’s rights although the effectiveness of e-advocacy could be limited by issues of access, availability and affordability. The study recommends amongst others that E- advocacy as well as other advocacy tools studied, all of which constitute promotional tools should be complemented with the instrument of protection such as strengthening the democratic institution (i.e judiciary, executive,) with capacity and modern technological tool to promote and enforce women’s rights, repeal discriminatory laws and code, and empower the law enforcement agencies to deliver on their mandate of protecting women’s rights in all its ramifications.

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, P & OYINLOLA, R (2021). Advocacy And Women’s Rights In Lagos And Ogun States, Nigeria (1999-2015). Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

, POPOOLA and ROSEMARY OYINLOLA "Advocacy And Women’s Rights In Lagos And Ogun States, Nigeria (1999-2015)" Afribary. Afribary, 20 May. 2021, Accessed 14 Jul. 2024.


, POPOOLA, ROSEMARY OYINLOLA . "Advocacy And Women’s Rights In Lagos And Ogun States, Nigeria (1999-2015)". Afribary, Afribary, 20 May. 2021. Web. 14 Jul. 2024. < >.


, POPOOLA and OYINLOLA, ROSEMARY . "Advocacy And Women’s Rights In Lagos And Ogun States, Nigeria (1999-2015)" Afribary (2021). Accessed July 14, 2024.