An Analysis of International Humanitarian Law and Protection of Civilians During Internal Armed Conflict A Case of South Sudan

ABSTRACT 

This thesis explored the position of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in the on-going internal armed conflict in South Sudan. This topic became a subject of exploration in this study because there has been minimal scholarly inf01mation regarding violation of IHL in on - going armed conflicts in South Sudan yet many humanitarian challenges and human right abuses as well as violations that have been. This study found out that International Humanitarian Law encompasses various aspects related to protection and respect of human rights and humanitarian assistance thus the warring parties in South Sudan what they are supposed to adhere to. The elements of IHL are embedded in the African Charter on Human and People's Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights; International Criminal Law; Bill of Rights of the Transitional Constitution of Republic of South Sudan (Constitution); South Sudan's criminal law and the Penal Code Act of the Republic of South Sudan, 2008. There were several challenges related to abuses and violations of the human rights that civilians have been facing since the internal armed conflict started in South Sudan. The position of the IHL has not been fully respected and adhered to in the ongoing armed conflict. The study recommends that the government of South Sudan should ensure that individuals as well as the media are able to freely seek and receive information or express themselves while respecting, protecting and promoting their right to privacy; the government of South Sudan should uphold and adhere to the international obligations. The International community in partnership with the NGO in South Sudan as well as human rights defenders should urgently carry out country-wide sensitization of citizens on the contents of the IHL thus ensuring that warring parties understand their role in peaceful; and the international communities. There should also implement court decisions in order to ensure promotion IHL as well as the rule of law and avoid impunity in the country.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ................................................................................................................................ ........ i

APPROVAL ............................................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION .......................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................ iv

NATIONAL LAWS ..... ........................................................................................................................... vii

LIST OF CASES ..................................................................................................................................... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................... ~ ...................................................................................................... ix

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................. xii

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................................ 1

GENERAL BACKGR01JND .................................................................................................................... 1

1.0 Genera l Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Historical development of the Law of Armed Conflict.. ...................................................................... 1

1.1.1 The law applicable in Armed Conflict .............................................................................................. 2

1.1.2 Definition of non-international armed conflict/internal armed conflict and International armed conflict ................................................. 3

I. I .3 Elements of Armed Conflict ............................................................................................................. 4

I. I .4 The element of intensity and organization in armed conflict.. ......................................................... S

1.1.5 Origin of conflict in South Sudan .................................................................... ................................. 6

I .2 Problem staten1ent ............... ......................................................... ........................................................ 7

1.3 Main objectives .................................................................................................................................... 8

1.3.1 Specific Objectives ...................... _. ..................................................................................................... 8

1.4 Research questions ............................................................................................................................... 8

I .5 Scope of the Study ............................................................................................................................... 9

1.6 Significance of the study ...................................................................................................................... 9

1.7 Research Methodology ............. ............................................................................................................. 9

1.7. I Study design .................................................................................................................................... 10

1.8 Literature revievv ............................................................................................................................... 12

1.8.1 Protection ofCivil ian's in Armed Conflict ......................................... ..................................... 12

I .8.2 Non-International Armed Conflict ..................................... .. ........................................................... 12

I .8.3 Displaced Persons in International! lumanitarian Law .................................................................. 17

I .9 Organizational Layout of the Thesis .................................................................................... .. ............ 18

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APA

Consults, E. (2022). An Analysis of International Humanitarian Law and Protection of Civilians During Internal Armed Conflict A Case of South Sudan. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-international-humanitarian-law-and-protection-of-civilians-during-internal-armed-conflict-a-case-of-south-sudan

MLA 8th

Consults, Education "An Analysis of International Humanitarian Law and Protection of Civilians During Internal Armed Conflict A Case of South Sudan" Afribary. Afribary, 28 Sep. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-international-humanitarian-law-and-protection-of-civilians-during-internal-armed-conflict-a-case-of-south-sudan. Accessed 13 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education . "An Analysis of International Humanitarian Law and Protection of Civilians During Internal Armed Conflict A Case of South Sudan". Afribary, Afribary, 28 Sep. 2022. Web. 13 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-international-humanitarian-law-and-protection-of-civilians-during-internal-armed-conflict-a-case-of-south-sudan >.

Chicago

Consults, Education . "An Analysis of International Humanitarian Law and Protection of Civilians During Internal Armed Conflict A Case of South Sudan" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 13, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-international-humanitarian-law-and-protection-of-civilians-during-internal-armed-conflict-a-case-of-south-sudan