AN ASSESSMENT OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................. i

APPROVAL ..................................................................... "··················"·········································· ii

DEDICATION ..................................... " ...... ,, ................................................................................. iii

A CICNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF ABREVIATION .............................................................................................................. V

LIST OF STATUTES ................................................................................................................... vii

TABLE OF CASES .................................................................................................................... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................. ix

CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................ 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Background of the study ........................................................................................................ 1

1.2. Statement of the proble1n ..................................................................................................... .4

1.3 General objective of the study .............................................................................................. .4

1.3 .1 Specific objectives .............................................................................................................. 4

1.4 Research Questions ................................................................................................................ 4

1.5 Scope of the study .................................................................................................................. 5

1.6 Significance of the study ........................................................................................................ 5

1.7 Hypothesis .............................................................................................................................. 5

1.8 Literature Review ................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER TW0 ......................................................................................................................... 13

2.1. THEORIZING CYBER CRIME ........................................................................................ 13

2.1.0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 13

2.1.1. The Definition of Cyber Crime ........................................................................................ 13

2.1.2. Theoretical framework on Cyber Crime .......................................................................... 14

2.1.3. Classification of Cyb er Crime .......................................................................................... 16

2.1.4. The origin of cyber crime ................................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER THREE ..................................................................................................................... 19

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME .......... 19

ix

3 .0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 19

3 .1 Cyber Crime and International Reactions ............................................................................ 19

3.2 The United Nation ................................................................................................................ 19

3 .3 African Union ...................................................................................................................... 20

3 .3 .1 The East African Community ........................................................................................... 21

3 .3 .2 The Economic Community of West African States .......................................................... 23

3 .3 .3 The Southern African Development Community ............................................................. 24

3.4 The European Union ............................................................................................................ 25

3 .4.1 Council of Europe ............................................................................................................. 26

3.5 The Association of South East Asian Nations .................................................................... .26

3.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 27

CHAPTER FOUR ....................................................................................................................... 28

THE ROLE OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK IN

COMBATING CYBERCRIME ................................................................................................. 28

4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 28

4.2 Unauthorized access ............................................................................................................. 28

4.2.1 Cyber Terroris1n ................................................................................................................ 32

4.2.3 Electronic Fraud ..................................... '. .......................................................................... 33

4.2.4 Po1nography ...................................................................................................................... 36

4.2.5 Cyber Harassment ............................................................................................................. 38

4.2.6 Cyber Stalking ................................................................................................................... 38

4.2.7 Unauthorized access with intent to co1m11it or facilitate Commission of forther offence 39

4.2.8 Unauthorized modification of computer material ............................................................ .40

4.2.9 Unauthorised use or interception of computer service .................................................... ..42

4.2.10 Unauthorised disclosure of info1111ation .......................................................................... 42

4.2.11 Offensive c01mnunication .............................................................................................. .45

4.2.12 Unauthorised obstruction of use of a computer ............................................................. .45

4.2.13 Unauthorised disclosure of access code ......................................................................... .45

4.3 The Extent of Cyber Crime in Uganda ............................................................................... .45

4.3.1 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 48

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4.4. The Legal Framework in Combating Cyber Crime in Uganda .......................................... .49

4.4.0 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 49

4.4.1 The Nature of Cyber Crime itself makes it difficult for Law Enforcement to effctively

co1nbat ........................................................................................................................................ 49

4.4.2 Inadequate investigative expertise and forensic resources ............................................... 50

4.4.3 Inadequate prosecutorial expertise amongst the prosecutors, the magistrates and the other

judicial officers .......................................................................................................................... 54

4.4.4 Insufficient police staffing resources ................................................................................ 56

4.4.5 Absence ofreporting culture by victims of computer crime ............................................ 57

4.4.6 Absence of international legal cooperation measures for extradition and mutual legal

assistance in multijmisdictional cyber crimes ........................................................................... 57

4.4.7 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 60

4.5 The role of the Institutional Framework on Combating Cyber Crime in Uganda ............... 60

4.5.1. The National Infonnation Technology Authority-Uganda (NITA-U) ............................. 61

4.5.2 Uganda National Computer Emergence Response Team (Cert. Ug) ................................ 62

4.5.3 The Uganda Communications C01mnission (UCC) .......................................................... 63

4.5.4 The cybercrime unit of the Uganda Police Force ............................................................. 64

4.5.5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 65

CHAPTER FI\'E ......................................................................................................................... 66

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................... 66

5.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 66

5.1 SuimnaryofFindings ........................................................................................................... 66

5.2 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 67

5.3 Reco1n1nendations ................................................................................................................ 68

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................... "································································· 73

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APA

Research, S. (2022). AN ASSESSMENT OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/an-assessment-of-uganda-s-legal-and-institutional-framework-on-combating-cyber-crime

MLA 8th

Research, SSA "AN ASSESSMENT OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME" Afribary. Afribary, 16 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/an-assessment-of-uganda-s-legal-and-institutional-framework-on-combating-cyber-crime. Accessed 26 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Research, SSA . "AN ASSESSMENT OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME". Afribary, Afribary, 16 Aug. 2022. Web. 26 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/an-assessment-of-uganda-s-legal-and-institutional-framework-on-combating-cyber-crime >.

Chicago

Research, SSA . "AN ASSESSMENT OF UGANDA'S LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON COMBATING CYBER CRIME" Afribary (2022). Accessed November 26, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/an-assessment-of-uganda-s-legal-and-institutional-framework-on-combating-cyber-crime