This dissertation provides an outline of the state of the art of international standardization
and the attendant process of conformity assessment. Where possible reference is made to
Namibian developments in order to either reinforce or contrast the issue being discussed.
Given the ongoing usage by Namibia of the South African standards and conformity
assessment architecture, significant reference is also made to South African developments
and practices. Likewise, reference is also made to SADC because of the ongoing
cooperation amongst the member countries, including Namibia, in the standards and
conformity assessment areas as part of the regional integration process.
The dissertation explores the relevant WTO Agreements which specifically deal with
standards viz. the TBT and SPS Agreements and demonstrates the essential link between
standards regimes and international trade. Well designed standards are essential in
facilitating international trade. However, standards can also become, by design or
inadvertently, barriers to trade. The WTO agreements provide a framework to avoid the
latter from happening and to deal with such an eventuality.
Likewise, conformity assessment while not a barrier per ser can raise the cost of
international commercial transactions significantly, especially on the part of the exporter
and thus can have the same impact as a tariff if not dealt with.
Governments are enjoined by the WTO Agreements to pursue such policy actions such
that standards and conformity assessments do not constitute unwarranted obstacles to
international trade. They are also expected to assist developing countries to participate
fully in the standardization and conformity assessment processes in order to avoid their
marginalization in international trade.
Namibia has a very good policy, legal and institutional framework governing its
standardization process. However, its implementation has been very slow, thus affecting
its relative standing within the regional and international standardization process.
However, Namibia’s linkage to the South African standardization infrastructure has
ensured that, in spite of its national infrastructure being at an early developmental stage,
it is fully integrated in the international standards architecture. The development within
SADC, of which it is a member, will further strengthen that linkage and integration in the
global standards architecture.
This dissertation is an exploration of the state of standardization in the international,
regional and national arena. These are the subject matter of chapters 2, 3 and 4. Chapter 2
deals with WTO Agreements, TBT and SPS, and the process of standard setting. Chapter
3 outlines the different levels at which standards are set and the different role players
involved. Chapter 4 deals with the verification of standards through conformity
assessment In order to illustrate the relative position of Namibia in the international
standardization framework, reference will be made to Namibian developments within the
body of those chapters. The dissertation concludes with chapter 5 which besides pulling
together the discussion in the preceding chapters contain a summary of the salient
features of Namibia’s relative standardization position and a conclusion on the extent of
Namibia’s conformance and recommendations for action.
Edu, F (2021). An Evaluation of The Conformance of Namibia Quality Standards to The Law And Practice of International Quality Standards. Afribary.com: Retrieved May 13, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-conformance-of-namibia-quality-standards-to-the-law-and-practice-of-international-quality-standards
Frontiers, Edu. "An Evaluation of The Conformance of Namibia Quality Standards to The Law And Practice of International Quality Standards" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 23 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-conformance-of-namibia-quality-standards-to-the-law-and-practice-of-international-quality-standards . Accessed 13 May. 2021.
Frontiers, Edu. "An Evaluation of The Conformance of Namibia Quality Standards to The Law And Practice of International Quality Standards". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 23 Apr. 2021. Web. 13 May. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-conformance-of-namibia-quality-standards-to-the-law-and-practice-of-international-quality-standards >.
Frontiers, Edu. "An Evaluation of The Conformance of Namibia Quality Standards to The Law And Practice of International Quality Standards" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed May 13, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-conformance-of-namibia-quality-standards-to-the-law-and-practice-of-international-quality-standards