An Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (A Case Study of Mogadishu in Somalia)

DDAMBA BRIAN 101 PAGES (29438 WORDS) Law Dissertation
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ....................................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL ............................................................................................................................. ii

DEDICATION ........................................................................................................................ iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................................................................................... iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................... , ... v

ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................. ix

TABLE OF CASES ................................................................................................................. xi

TABLE OF STATUTES ........................................................................................................ xii

TABLE OF CASES ............................................................................................................... xiii

ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... xiv

CHAPTER ONE :INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1

1.1 Background of study ......................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Statement of the problem ............................................................................................... ; .. 6

1.3 Objectives of the study ...................................................................................................... 6

1.3.1 General objective ............................................................................................................ 6

1.3.2 Specific objectives; ......................................................................................................... 6

1.4 Research questions; ........................................................................................................... 7

1.5 Significance of the study ................................................................................................... 7

1.6 Literature review ............................................................................................................... 7

I. 7 Methodology ................................................................................................................... 15

1.7.3 Document consultation ................................................................................................. 16

1.7.3 Interview method .......................................................................................................... 16

I. 7.4 Case study method ........................................................................................................ 17

V

1.8 Limitations of the Study ................................................................................................... 17

CHAPTER TWO: THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL

FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS IN CIVIL WARS .......... 18

2.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 18

2.1.1 International Human Rights Law (IHRL) ..................................................................... 19

2.1.2 International Humanitarian Law (IHL) ......................................................................... 21

2.1.3 International Refugee Law ............................................................................................ 22

2.2 The institutional framework for the protection of Civilians in civil wars ........................ 22

2.2.1 The Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Civilians in civil wars ................ 24

2.2.2 The United Nations High Commission for Civilians (UNHCR) .................................. 24

2.2.3 The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA)

................................................................................................................................................ 26

2.2.4 The Office of the Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) .............................................. 26

2.2.5 Legislative and policy framework on Civilians in civil wars ........................................ 27

2.4.2 The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights ............................................ 28

CHAPTER THREE: NON-LEGAL FACTORS RELEVANT TO THE MOGADISHU

CONFLICT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALIA ............................................................ 30

3.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 30

3.1 The Mogadishu conflict in the Republic of Somalia ........................................................ 31

3.1.1 The cold war of the civil war 1998-1991 ...................................................................... 31

3.1.3 Humanitarian Intervention 1992-1999 .......................................................................... 32

3.1.4 The Transitional National Government (TNG) and growth of terrorism 2000 present

day . ......................................................................................................................................... 34

3.1.5 Limitations ..................................................................................................................... 35

3.2 Intervention by International bodies peace keeping ......................................................... 36

vi

3.2.1 The United Nation Operation in Somalia UNOSOM I (April I 992- March 1993) ...... 37

3 .2.2 The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) ................................................... 38

3.2.3 The right of civilian in the conflict.. ............................................................................. 42

3.2.4 What is meant by protection of civilians and why is it important to protect civilians in

Mogadishu conflict? .............................................................................................................. 45

3.2.6 Challenges in the classification of Mogadishu conflicts .............................................. 46

3.2.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 47

CHAPTER FOUR: LEGAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE MOGADISHIJ

CONFLICT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALIA ............................................................ 49

4.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 49

4.1 General protection of civilians ........................................................................................ 49

4.1.1 Customary International Law ....................................................................................... 49

4.1.2 The Principle of IHL .................................................................................................... 50

4. I .2. I The principle of Humanity ........................................................................................ SO

4.1.2.2 The principle of necessity .......................................................................................... 51

4.1.2.3 The Principle of proportionality ............................................................................... , 51

4. I .2.4 The principle of the distinction between civilians and combatants ........................... 52

4.2 Traditional forms of classification of am1ed conflict.. .................................................... 52

4.2. I Asymmetric Conflicts ................................................................................................... 53

4.2.2 Characteristics of asymmetric conflicts ....................................................................... 54

4.2.3 Types of Asymmetric Conflict.. ................................................................................... 54

4.3.1 Classification of armed conflicts .................................................................................. 56

4.3.2 International armed conflicts ........................................................................................ 56

4.3. 3 Occupation ................................................................................................................... 57

vii

4.3.4 Internal disturbance and plots, Tensions ...................................................................... 58

4.3.5 Non International Armed Conflicts .............................................................................. 59

4.3.6 Wars of National Liberation ......................................................................................... 61

4.3.7 Civil War ...................................................................................................................... 62

4.3.8 Internationalized and non Internationalized Armed conflict. ....................................... 62

4.4.1 State control war ........................................................................................................... 63

4.4.2 State formation conflicts .............................................................................................. 63

4.4.3 Failed state wars ........................................................................................................... 64

4.5 Characterization of the Mogadishu conflict. ................................................................... 64

4.6 Protection of civilians during the Mogadishu conflict in Somalia .................................. 66

4.6.1 Categories of civilians .................................................................................................. 68

4. 7 Representing wrongs in the Mogadishu conflict. ............................................................ 70

4.7.1 Crimes against humanity .............................................................................................. 71

4.7.2 War Crimes ................................................................................................................... 72

4.7.3 Grave breaches oflnternational Humanitarian Law .................................................... 72

4.8 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 73

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. 74

5.1 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 74

5.2 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 75

5.3 Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 77

REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 85  

ABSTRACT The study is an evaluation of the legal frame work protecting civilians in armed conflict, putting specific emphasis on the Mogadishu conflict in Republic of Somalia. The issue of wars and umest is common worldwide where the most delicate victims who are civilians have been tortured, many lost their lives and property during conflicts. This is not exceptional in a failed state like Somalia were millions of innocent civilians have lost their lives despite the existence of the protection provided to civilians under IHL. This study evaluates situations of am1ed conflict and how the rights of civilians have been violated in conflicts like the Mogadishu conflict where the means of war fare used are unconventional. The history of the conflict is examined and the plight of civilians. The study further discussed the importance of the protection of civilians to be a moral responsibility and the duty to protect civilians though primarily imposed on the state, is a collective one. The study further evaluates the various laws that protect civilians provided for under IHL; the various classifications of armed conflicts; the traditional classification and the IHL classification of armed conflict. The study shows challenges in classifying the Mogadishu conflict, owing to its nature; it does not fit the IHL definition of armed conflicts thereby creating challenge in the protection of civilians in anned conflicts. The study also recommends strategies that may enable effective protection of civilians in the Mogadishu conflict.

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APA

BRIAN, D (2022). An Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (A Case Study of Mogadishu in Somalia). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-legal-framework-for-the-protection-of-civilians-in-armed-conflict-a-case-study-of-mogadishu-in-somalia

MLA 8th

BRIAN, DDAMBA "An Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (A Case Study of Mogadishu in Somalia)" Afribary. Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-legal-framework-for-the-protection-of-civilians-in-armed-conflict-a-case-study-of-mogadishu-in-somalia. Accessed 06 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

BRIAN, DDAMBA . "An Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (A Case Study of Mogadishu in Somalia)". Afribary, Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022. Web. 06 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-legal-framework-for-the-protection-of-civilians-in-armed-conflict-a-case-study-of-mogadishu-in-somalia >.

Chicago

BRIAN, DDAMBA . "An Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (A Case Study of Mogadishu in Somalia)" Afribary (2022). Accessed February 06, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-the-legal-framework-for-the-protection-of-civilians-in-armed-conflict-a-case-study-of-mogadishu-in-somalia