An Investigation into The Challenges for the Enjoyment of Basic Human Rights by Children in Child-Headed Households in Karongi District, Western Rwanda

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title page .............................................................................................. i

Declaration ........................................................................................... ii

Approval ............................................................................................. iii

Dedication ........................................................................................... iv

Acknowledgements ................................................................................. v

Table of Contents .................................................................................. vi

Li~cl~~·························································································x

List of Figures ...................................................................................... xi

Abbreviation and Acronyms ................................................................... xii

Abstract ............................................................................................ xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ........................................................... 1

1.1. Introduction ........................................................................ 1

1.2. Background to the Study ...................................................... 1

1.3. Statement of the Problem ..................................................... 9

1.4. Purpose of the Study .......................................................... 10

1.5. Objectives ......................................................................... 10

1.5.1. General Objective ..................................................... 1 O

1.5.2. Specific Objectives ................................................... 1 O

1. 6. Research Questions .......................................................... 11

1. 7. Scope of the Study ............................................................ 11

1.8. Significance of the Study ..................................................... 12

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................ 14

2.1. Introduction ....................................................................... 14

2.2. Theoretical Framework ....................................................... 15

2.2.1. Children's Rights as Human Rights .............................. 15

2.2.2. Rights and Needs of Children ..................................... 17

Vil

2.2.3. Basic Rights of Subsistence Theory .............................. 17

2.3. Literature Review .............................................................. 19

2.3.1. Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children ........................ 19

2.3.2. The Right to Adequate Food ....................................... 23

2.3.3. The Right to Education .............................................. 26

2.3.4. The Right to Health ................................................... 29

2.3.5. Community Responses ............................................. 31

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................... 35

3.1. Introduction ..................................................................... 35

3.2. Research Design ............................................................... 35

3.3. Population Sampling .......................................................... 36

3.4. Study Population .............................................................. 36

3.5. Research Area .................................................................. 37

3.6. Data Collection Methods and Instruments ............................... 38

3.6.1. Primary Data .......................................................... 38

3.6.2. Secondary Data ........................................................ 39

3. 7. Data Analysis Plan ............................................................ 39

3.7.1. Quantitative Data ...................................................... 39

3.7.2. Qualitative Data ........................................................ .40

3.8. Limitations of the Study ....................................................... .40

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION ............................................. 41

4.1. Introduction ....................................................................... 41

4.2. Profile of Respondents ....................................................... .41

4.2.1. Gender of Respondents ............................................. .41

4.2.2. Age of Respondents ................................................. .42

4.2.3. Categories of Respondents ........................................ .42

4.2.4. Level of Education of Respondents .............................. 43

4.3. Challenges Facing CHHs .................................................... .44

4.3.1. Access to Adequate Food ........................................... 44

VIII

4.3.2. Quality of Food ......................................................... 47

4.3.3. Sources of Food ....................................................... 48

4.3.4. Reliability and Accessibility of Sources of Food ............... 49

4.3.5. Regularity of School Attendance .................................. 50

4.3.6. Treatment of CHHs at School. ..................................... 52

4.3.7. School Drop Out Rates ............................................... 53

4.3.8. Quality of Health Services ........................................... 54

4.4. Coping Mechanisms ........................................................... 57

4.4.1. Activities carried out by CHHs ..................................... 58

4.4.2. Support Extended to CHHs ........................................ 58

4.4.3. Factors Increasing Vulnerability ................................... 59

4.4.4. Government Actions to Address CHHs Crisis ................. 60

4.5. Community Response ......................................................... 62

4.5.1. Level of Community Response .................................... 62

4.5.2. Opportunities Available for Rendering support ................ 64

4.5.3. Level of Activeness by Community Service Providers ...... 65

4.5.4. Effects of Community Response .................................. 67

4.5.5. Obstacles to CHHs Relating with the Community ............ 69

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ... 71

1.1. Introduction ..................................................................... 71

1.2. Discussions ..................................................................... 71

1.3. Conclusion ....................................................................... 7 4

1 .4. Recommendations ............................................................. 76

1.5. Areas for Further Research ................................................. 79

REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 80

ABSTRACT The study sought to investigate the challenges facing child-headed households (CHHs) in their attempt to enjoy their basic human rights. As such, the study treated variables that included the challenges, coping mechanisms, and community responses to the plight of child-headed households. The instruments used included structured and unstructured questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and observation. The target population included 15 local leaders, 10 NGO/CBO staff, 40 children (head of CHHs), and 25 community members. The major findings of the study revealed that child-headed households experience challenges in accessing adequate food, education and health services due to several factors largely attributed to poverty and lack of external support, lack of finances and neglect by the community, which have had negative implications. As a result, children have adapted to means for survival through working in exchange for resources like food and money to meet their survival needs. In most cases children's efforts to eke a living translates to child labor and abrogation of their human rights. The Government of Rwanda has put in place measures to curb some of these challenges by having waivers on fees under universal primary education programme and free health services. However, these measures have not cushioned the impact for the children and as such, they fail to enjoy their human rights. Also, no solid measures have been put in place to address the right to food. Though the community has an opportunity to play a big role in mitigating the problems, their response to the challenges of CHHs has not been sufficient and this is attributed to poverty, lack of involvement of children in matters concerning them and lack of mobilization and sensitization.

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APA

ONG'ESA, S (2022). An Investigation into The Challenges for the Enjoyment of Basic Human Rights by Children in Child-Headed Households in Karongi District, Western Rwanda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/an-investigation-into-the-challenges-for-the-enjoyment-of-basic-human-rights-by-children-in-child-headed-households-in-karongi-district-western-rwanda

MLA 8th

ONG'ESA, SARAH "An Investigation into The Challenges for the Enjoyment of Basic Human Rights by Children in Child-Headed Households in Karongi District, Western Rwanda" Afribary. Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/an-investigation-into-the-challenges-for-the-enjoyment-of-basic-human-rights-by-children-in-child-headed-households-in-karongi-district-western-rwanda. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

ONG'ESA, SARAH . "An Investigation into The Challenges for the Enjoyment of Basic Human Rights by Children in Child-Headed Households in Karongi District, Western Rwanda". Afribary, Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/an-investigation-into-the-challenges-for-the-enjoyment-of-basic-human-rights-by-children-in-child-headed-households-in-karongi-district-western-rwanda >.

Chicago

ONG'ESA, SARAH . "An Investigation into The Challenges for the Enjoyment of Basic Human Rights by Children in Child-Headed Households in Karongi District, Western Rwanda" Afribary (2022). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/an-investigation-into-the-challenges-for-the-enjoyment-of-basic-human-rights-by-children-in-child-headed-households-in-karongi-district-western-rwanda