Analysis of Sandcrete Blocks Production by using different Sources of Sharp Sands in some Parts of South-East Geo-Political Zones. A Case Study Enugu and Ebonyi State

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ABSTRACT 

This study examined the experimental analysis of sandcrete block production by using different sources of sharp sands in Enugu and Ebonyi State of South East Geo-Political Zone. As a result of the increasing cost of block production, many manufacturers and builders have resorted to using samples of sharp sand from different locations without appropriate consideration of the material constituents of the samples thereby, resulting in poor and undurable sandcrete blocks production. In this research work, samples were graded into different zones and their suitability in production of sandcrete blocks, was ascertained. Also; the possible effect of chemical compositions on the compressive strength, was also considered. The study also covers a comparison of the compressive strengths of sandcrete block produced from different samples and sources with reference to the standard value approved by NIS and other Civil Engineering bodies. This study has shown that the compressive strengths of sandcrete blocks produced in some parts of south east region, falls within the acceptable national and international standards. The findings from this study also agree with similar studies in other parts of Nigeria. It also reveals the need for commercial industries to abide by the standard mix proportion specified for sandcrete block production which is 1: 6 required, to avoid future building deficiencies.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Approval page ii

Certification page iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Table of contents vi

Abstract ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background of the study 1

1.2 Statement of problems 5

1.3 Objectives of the study 5

1.4 Scope of the study 6

1.5 Significance of the study 6

CHAPTER TWO; LITERATURE REVIEW 7

2.1 General 7

2.2 Overview 13

2.2.1 Note on Cement Chemistry notations and mineral names 13

2.2.2 Raw materials for cement manufacture 16

2.2.3 Burning in kiln formation-formation of cement clinkers 18

2.2.4 The burning process 19

2.3 properties of the major cement minerals 22

2.3.1 Tricalcium silicate(C3S) 23

2.3.2 Dicalcium silicate(C2S) 25

2.3.2 Tricalcium aluminate(C3A) 25

2.3.3 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite(C4AF) 26

2.4 Mineral and oxide composition of Portland cement 27

2.5 Types of Portland cement 31

2.5.1 Tricalcium silicate(C3S) 35

2.5.2 Dicalcium silicate(C2S) 35

2.5.3 Tricalcium aluminate(C3A) 35

2.5.4 Tetracalcium aluminoferrite(C4AF) 36

2.5.5 formation of fine powders(pechini process) 36

CHAPTER THREE: 39

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 39

3.1 Materials 39

3.1.1 Cement 39

3.1.2 Sand 40

3.1.3 Water 41

3.2 Methods 41

3.2.1 Specific Gravity Test 41

3.2.1.1 Test procedure 42

3.2.1.2 Equation for calculation of specific gravity 42

3.2.2 Sieve Analysis 43

3.2.2.1 Test Procedure 43

3.2.2.2 Equation For Computation Of Percentage Retained 44

Definition of terms 45

3.2.2.3 Equation For Computation Of Percentage Finer 46

Definition of terms 47

3.2.3 Compressive Strength Test 48

3.2.3.1 Test Specimen(Sandcrete Block) 48

3.2.3.2 Manufacture of Sandcrete Blocks 49

3.2.3.1 Compressive Strength Test Procedure 49

CHAPTER FOUR: 53

4.0 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 53

4.1 Descriptions of different sand types 53

4.1.1 Ikwo sand 53

4.1.2 Asu Amenu sand 53

4.1.3 Coal Mine sand 54

4.1.4 Obollo Etiti sand 54

4.1.5 Opi Agu sand 55

4.2 Specific Gravity Test 55

4.3 Results of Sieve analysis 64

4.3.1 Result of sieve analysis of Asu Amenu sample 64

4.3.2 Result of sieve analysis of Ikwo sample 65

4.3.3 Result of sieve analysis of Coal Mine sample 66

4.3.4 Result of sieve analysis of Obollo Etiti sample 67

4.3.5 Result of sieve analysis of Opi Agu sample 68

4.3.1 Result of sieve analysis of mixture of Coal Mine and Ikwo sample 69

4.4 computation of sieve analysis parameters 70

4.4.1computation of sieve analysis parameters of Asu Amenu sample 70

4.4.2 computation of sieve analysis parameters of Ikwo sample 74

4.4.3 computation of sieve analysis parameters of Asu Amenu sample 78

4.4.4 computation of sieve analysis parameters of Obollo Etiti sample 81

4.4.5 computation of sieve analysis parameters of Opi Agu sample 85

4.4.6 computation of sieve analysis parameters of mixture of Coal Mine and Ikwo sample 89

4.5 Determination of various coefficient 93

4.5.1 Coefficients of uniformity and curvature 93

4.5.2 Mixture of Coal Mine and Ikwo 93

4.5.3 Coal Mine 94

4.5.4 Opi Agu 94

4.5.5 Obollo Etiti 94

4.5.6 Ikwo 95

4.5.7 Asu Amenu 95

4.6 Unified Soil Classification System 96

4.7 Zoning of various samples 97

4.8 Coefficients of curvature & uniformity classification of sand 98

4.9 Chemical Test Result 99

4.10 Compressive strength 101

4.10.1 Chemical Properties Of Cement Used 102

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 103

5.10 Compressive Strength 103

5.2 Discussion 105

5.3 Conclusion/Recommendation 106

REFERENCE 107

APPENDIX 1: ILLUSTRATIVE/DEMOSTRATIVE FIGURES IN THE STUDY/SOURCE 109

Graphical presentation of sieve analysis results 109

Fig1 Obollo Etiti Sample 109

Fig 2 Ikwo Sample 110

Fig 3 Opi Agu sample 111

Fig 4 Asu Amenu sample 112

Fig 5 Coal Mine sample 113

Fig 6 Mixture of Coal Mine & ikwo 114

Fig. 7: Asu Amenu River 115

Fig. 8: Opi Agu River 116

Fig. 9: Obollo Etiti River 117

Fig. 10: Ikwo River 118

Fig. 11: Coal Mine River 119

Fig. 12: Coal Mine River 120

Fig. 13: Sandcrete Block Placed on a Crusher 121

Fig. 14: Crushing of Sandcrete Block in Progress 122

Fig. 15: Produced Sandcrete Blocks 123

Table 2.1 cement chemistry notation based on oxides 14

Table 2.2 Notations of cement minerals and products 15

Table 2.3 Examples of raw materials for Portland cement manufacture 17

Table 2.4 Oxide compositions of a portland cement 27

Table 2.5 General features of the main types of Portland cement 31

Table 2.6 Effect of firing temperatures on the surface area of dicalcium silicate powder 37

Table 4.0 summary of calculated specific gravities for various samples 63

Table 4.1 Results of Sieve Analysis of Asu Amenu sample 73

Table 4.2 Results of Sieve Analysis of ikwo sample 77

Table 4.3 Results of Sieve Analysis of Coal Mine sample 81

Table 4.4Results of Sieve Analysis of Obollo Etiti sample 84

Table 4.5 Results of Sieve Analysis of Opi Agu sample 88

Table 4.6 Results of Sieve Analysis of Mixture of Coal Mine and Ikwo sample 92

Table 4.7 summary of coefficient of uniformity and curvature result 96

Table 4.8 zoning of various samples 98

Table 4.9 coefficient of uniformity and curvature classification of sands 99

Table 4.10 Chemical composition of sand samples 100

Table 4.11 Compressive strength test results of sandcrete blocks cured in weeks 101

Table 4.12 chemical properties of cement used 102

Table 5.0 functions of cement elements on sandcrete block 104

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APA

Consults, E. & DANIEL, O (2022). Analysis of Sandcrete Blocks Production by using different Sources of Sharp Sands in some Parts of South-East Geo-Political Zones. A Case Study Enugu and Ebonyi State. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-sandcrete-blocks-production-by-using-different-sources-of-sharp-sands-in-some-parts-of-south-east-geo-political-zones-a-case-study-enugu-and-ebonyi-state

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and OMEJE DANIEL "Analysis of Sandcrete Blocks Production by using different Sources of Sharp Sands in some Parts of South-East Geo-Political Zones. A Case Study Enugu and Ebonyi State" Afribary. Afribary, 10 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-sandcrete-blocks-production-by-using-different-sources-of-sharp-sands-in-some-parts-of-south-east-geo-political-zones-a-case-study-enugu-and-ebonyi-state. Accessed 07 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and OMEJE DANIEL . "Analysis of Sandcrete Blocks Production by using different Sources of Sharp Sands in some Parts of South-East Geo-Political Zones. A Case Study Enugu and Ebonyi State". Afribary, Afribary, 10 Nov. 2022. Web. 07 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-sandcrete-blocks-production-by-using-different-sources-of-sharp-sands-in-some-parts-of-south-east-geo-political-zones-a-case-study-enugu-and-ebonyi-state >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and DANIEL, OMEJE . "Analysis of Sandcrete Blocks Production by using different Sources of Sharp Sands in some Parts of South-East Geo-Political Zones. A Case Study Enugu and Ebonyi State" Afribary (2022). Accessed December 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-sandcrete-blocks-production-by-using-different-sources-of-sharp-sands-in-some-parts-of-south-east-geo-political-zones-a-case-study-enugu-and-ebonyi-state