The rapid growth of internet-based technology/innovations has resulted in many approaches to learning development, manifested in different forms of e-learning (Shawar, Al-Sadi, and Sane, 2007). The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of education is no doubt the catalyst for improving access to quality education by all and to acquire knowledge-based economy (Muiwa and Kyalo, 2013). Nowadays, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide new possibilities for the creation of innovative effective environments of teaching and learning, by re-defining the educational frameworks and by deploying new learning facilities (Papadourakis, Kaliakatsos, and Paschaloudis, 2006). Moreover, the concept of lifelong, individualized learning engineered through online education is emerging as a major force in elementary, secondary, and higher education, as well as in professional training and development (Jones International University, 2002). Computer usage in secondary schools has made many positive impacts and developments into learning (Paris, 2004). These often supplement or replace traditional methods, enabling students to engage with their learning through various web technologies alongside or instead of face-to-face delivery. E-learning has been defined according to the contexts and environments where it operates (Asabere and Enguah, 2012). Al-Adwan, Al-Adwan and Smedley (2013), observed that e-learning is approached as a system that uses internet technology to deliver information to students with interactions through computer interfaces. Masrom (2007) defines e-learning as “learning facilitated and supported through the utilization of information and communication technology (ICTs)”. Its use in different educational processes is designed to Improve the performance of learning (Al-Adwan and Smedley, 2012). It may be used in many forms, i.e. as a supplement to traditional lectures, asynchronous distance learning, learning management systems or online learning (Concannon, Flynn and Campbell (2005). The combination of traditional learning (face-to-face lectures) exploring students acceptance of e-learning and web-based courses ¡s known as “blended learning”. This mixes the features of virtual and real environments to provide a holistic information production and enhance the students’ learning experience.
Providing a flexible and responsive learning experience frequently requires the involvement of modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enhance access to continuous professional development practices in today’s fast mobile work place environment. E-learning offers flexibility of time and place which allows higher education institutions and their student to deliver or receive learning materials in a more flexible manner. Concannon et al., (2005) state that the increased demand of integrating ICI into the educational. process due to the change of students’ demography places higher education. Institutions under pressure to utilize information and communication technologies at secondary schools.
Additionally, high schools through effective implementation of e-learning could attract and engage larger numbers of students. With the ever-present need to demonstrate value for money and maximize efficiency and effectiveness from training and development within an often restricted time and expenditure framework, the measurement of impact from enhancing knowledge management using technology ¡s of a constant interest and importance (Smedley, 2010). Despite the many advantages offered by e-learning systems, the transformation of the educational style presents various challenges that would significantly affect culture and the continuing need for the development of technological skills of students ad staff (Al-Adwan and Smedley, 2012). Saade, Nebebe & Tan, (2007) point out that “in general, like any information systems, user acceptance and usage are important primary measures of system success”.
Therefore, students’ involvement and acceptance must be considered; otherwise advanced systems will most likely fail. Many schools that offer e-learning services encounter various difficulties in terms of adopting successful strategies including the acceptance and effectiveness of delivering courses. More importantly, understanding students’ acceptance of e-Learning is considered the most major step toward implementing and developing a successful e-learning environment (Butorac, Nebic, and Nemcanin, 2001). It is essential that developers and school’ management understand how students perceive and participate in an e-learning environment along with how to apply an effective e-learning approach to improve the learning process (Kohang and Durante, 2003). Moreover, exploring students’ intentions and investigating the factors that impact on students’ beliefs about e-learning can help management to create new methods for attracting a larger number of students who are willing to be involved in e-learning systems (Park, 2009). Therefore, it is crucial to examine analyze students’ attitude towards the adoption of e-learning particularly in technical/vocational schools in Delta State.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter dealt with the review of related literature. It was discussed under the following headings: conceptual framework, theoretical framework, E-Learning in secondary education, E-learning technique, E-Learning ¡in the Context of TVE, and Benefits of Integrating e-learning in TVE, challenges of Integrating e-learning in TVE and summary of related literature.
The rapid development of information, communication and technologies (ICT), Internet technologies and Web-based applications have initiated unparalleled transformation in secondary schools all over the world (Cheng 2010). Electronic learning (e-learning) is changing the way teaching and learning is taking place on secondary schools (Ahmed, 2010). Though the up-scale of e-learning in developing countries especially in Africa is slow compared to their Western counterparts, the last decade has witnessed some concerted efforts on the part of high school administrators to implement e-learning strategies in order to catch up with their counterparts in the developed countries. Vrana, Zafiropoujos and Drogalas (2006) reported significant achievement gains among students using computers compared to students in conventional settings; moreover Hong et al. (2001) revealed that e-learning is becoming progressively an integral part of the secondary school’s curriculum learning. However the adoption of e-learning in secondary schools ¡n Nigeria is still in its infancy, and for the moment there have been recorded good practices only in higher education (Vrana et al, 2065, Papadourakis et al., 2006). Woodrow (1991) points out that monitoring teachers and students attitudes is significant for communal usage, acceptance and success. Even more, knowin exactly how teachers and students perceive e-learning and web based technologies “is an important first step” (Jamlan, 2004) before adoption.
Essentially, e-learning is usually defined as a type of learning supported by information and communication technology (ICT) via the internet, intranets, extranets or many others to improve the quality of teaching and learning (Tagoe, 2012). A broader definition of e-learning is provided by Selim (2007) as “the delivery of course content via electronic media, such as internet, intranet, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM.
E-learning is divided into different types ranging from web-supplemented courses, through web dependent to mixed mode courses and finally to fully online courses (OECD, 2005). E-learning is a new generation of learning (Spender, 2001) it is a more recent approach to the delivery of knowledge, offering the learner more control over the learning process (Acton et al., 2005). The emergence of e-learning is well documented, but what constitutes e-learning is less well defined (Homan & Macpherson, 2005).
Beamish et al. (2002) defined e-learning as a wide set of application and processes allied to training and learning that include computer based learning, online learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration. These services can be delivered by a variety of electronic media, including the intranet, internet, interactive TV and satellite. In the same way it was defined by Govindasamy (2001) “Instruction delivered via all electronic media including the internet, intranets, extranets, satellite broadcasts, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM”. A deliberately wide definition is also this of Pollard and Hillage, (2001) “The delivery and administration of learning opportunities and support via computer, networked and web-based technology to help individual performance and development ‘Sambrook (2003) and Homan & Macpherson, (2005) use term e-learning to cover any electronic learning material from CDROMs on standalone PCs to intranet/internet networked systems with downloadable and interactive material. Hall & Snider (2000) define e-learning as the process of learning via computers over the Internet and Intranets. E-learning is defined as interactive learning in which the learning content is available online and provides automatic feedback to the student’s learning activities (Torstein and Svein, 2003). There are several cogent reasons, according to Jamlan (2004) for adopting and implementing e-learning into an educational system.
First is the growth of information technology: e-learning has become an ideal delivery vehicle for education and learning.
Second, it is information rich: e-learning offers both teachers and learners access to anywhere, anytime ‘information rich” resources.
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