ABSTRACT Peanuts are very nutritious oil seeds grown worldwide but are however susceptible to aflatoxin contamination through the infestation of aflatoxigenic molds. These aflatoxins are known to have carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. There is therefore the need to put in measures to ensure that excessive levels of aflatoxins are reduced to the barest minimum in peanuts and peanut products to conform to the requirements of food safety regulations. The objectives of this study were to determine the aflatoxin levels in peanuts and peanut products from artisanal peanut oil processors and to identify the challenges with the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system as a food safety management tool to eliminate the hazards of aflatoxin contamination in peanut oil processing by-products. A survey was done in three regions of Ghana which included the Greater Accra, Ashanti and Northern regions. Peanut processors were identified in the markets by convenience sampling and interviewed on their processing methods. A semi-structured questionnaire designed for the study was pretested in markets in the Greater Accra region that were not part of the selected markets for the study. The knowledge of the peanut processors on food safety issues was tested and the processing methods of peanut processors were observed and documented. The peanut products were characterized for their physicochemical indices. The level of microbial and aflatoxin contamination were determined on the peanut products and the challenges associated with the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system determined. All the peanut processors were females between the ages of 20 to over 50 years. Majority (98%) of the peanut processors had no formal education. However, they were not ignorant of food safety issues associated with peanut consumption. The processing methods of the peanut processors were not different from what had been reported from earlier studies. xiv The peanut products had moisture content ranging between 1-4.3%, carbohydrate content of 20.1-40.1%, protein content of 26.2-40.8%, ash content of 3.8-7.1%, fat content of 20.3-33.7% and texture of 18,375.9-19,743 N/cm2 . The microbial analysis showed that peanuts and its by-products were highly contaminated with viable cells, E. coli, coliforms, yeast and moulds far exceeding 100 cfu/g. Viable cell counts ranged between (1.0) 101 -(9.7)106 cfu/g, E coli counts were between (1.0) 101 - (7.5)102 cfu/g, coliform counts were between (2.0) 101 -(5.2) 106 cfu/g, yeast counts were between (1.0) 101 -(7.5) 102 cfu/g and mould counts were between (1.0) 101 -(4.5) 102 cfu/g. Staph aureus and Salmonella were however not detected. The aflatoxin contamination levels of the traditionally processed peanut oil and its byproducts far exceeded the set limits of 20µg/kg by the United States and 4µg/kg total aflatoxin for the European Union. The aflatoxin levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were 0.05-522.1 µg/kg, 6.2-41.2 µg/kg, 0.02-25.7 µg/kg and 0.03-2.1 µg/kg respectively. The challenges in the implementation of HACCP in the traditional peanut oil and khebab powder processing were identified as the level of education and adaptability of processors to the HACCP system and the ability to monitor the critical control points identified to ensure they are meeting the set standards by the HACCP team.
BAAH-TUAHENE, S (2021). Assessment And Safety Improvement Of Peanut Based By-Products From Peanut Oil Processing: Kulikuli And Khebab Powder. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-and-safety-improvement-of-peanut-based-by-products-from-peanut-oil-processing-kulikuli-and-khebab-powder
BAAH-TUAHENE, SYLVIA "Assessment And Safety Improvement Of Peanut Based By-Products From Peanut Oil Processing: Kulikuli And Khebab Powder" Afribary. Afribary, 09 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-and-safety-improvement-of-peanut-based-by-products-from-peanut-oil-processing-kulikuli-and-khebab-powder. Accessed 29 Mar. 2023.
BAAH-TUAHENE, SYLVIA . "Assessment And Safety Improvement Of Peanut Based By-Products From Peanut Oil Processing: Kulikuli And Khebab Powder". Afribary, Afribary, 09 Apr. 2021. Web. 29 Mar. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-and-safety-improvement-of-peanut-based-by-products-from-peanut-oil-processing-kulikuli-and-khebab-powder >.
BAAH-TUAHENE, SYLVIA . "Assessment And Safety Improvement Of Peanut Based By-Products From Peanut Oil Processing: Kulikuli And Khebab Powder" Afribary (2021). Accessed March 29, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-and-safety-improvement-of-peanut-based-by-products-from-peanut-oil-processing-kulikuli-and-khebab-powder