Behaviour Reinforcement and Learning Capabilities of Mentally Retarded Learners in Trans-nzoia East District, Kenya

ABSTRACT This study was to determine the degree of effectiveness of behavior reinforcement and learning capabilities of the mentally retarded learners in trans-Nzoia East District Kenya. The instruments used for collection was questionnaire used to establish the following: demographic characteristics of both pupils and teachers’ behavior reinforcement used by teachers in teaching mentally retarded learners in the level of learning capabilities of the mentally retarded learners and significant relationship between the degree of reinforcement and level of learning capabilities of the mentally retarded learners. The findings of the study indicated the following; most of the learners with mental retardation were male first born or last born in the family. Higher numbers of teachers handling mental retardation learners were female. Teachers commonly use the following reinforcement; contingency contracting, token economies, performed instructions, paired associations and environmental enhancement. Discovered that learning capabilities enhanced through; education programming, precision teaching and concept analysis. It was concluded that these learners learn better through reinforcement. Without reinforcement the mentally retarded learners can hardly grasp concepts from the teacher. Also reinforcement change poor behavior into good behaviour through behavior modification. It was recommended that more teachers especially male to posted in special schools. Also enough teachers to be posted in schools with units. Lastly the government to provide more physical facilities, learning and teaching aids.


 TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION A

DECLARATION B ii

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ACRONYMS v

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LIST OF TABLES ix

ABSTRACT x

CHAPTERS PAGE

ONE THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE 1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 3

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 3

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4

NULL HYPOTHESIS 4

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS 5

TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7

CONCEPTS, OPINION, IDEAS FROM AUTHORS 7

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE 13

RELATED STUDIES 14

vi

THREE METHODOLOGY 20

RESEARCH DESIGN 20

TARGET POPULATION 20

SAMPLE SIZE 20

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS 21

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES 22

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 23

DATA ANALYSIS 23

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 24

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 25

FOUR PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERRPRETATION OF

DATA 26

PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS 26

THE LEVEL OF BEHAVIOR REINFORCEMENT USED BY TEACHERS IN

TEACHING MENTALLY RETARDED LEARNERS 27

THE LEVEL OF LEARNING CAPABILITIES OF MENTALLY RETARDED

LEARNERS IN TRANS-NZOIA EAST DISTRICT. 31

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIOUR REINFORCEMENT AND LEARNING

CAPABILITIES OF MENTALLY RETARDED LEARNERS IN TRANS-NZOIA

DISTRICTS 34

FIVE SUMMARY, CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 37

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 37

PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS 37

CONCLUSIONS 39

REFERENCES 42

Appendix 1 A Transmittal letter from CHDR 47

Appendix 1 B Transmittal letter for the respondentS 48

Appendix I C Transmittal letter from ministry of education 49

Appendix II Clearence from ethics committee 50

Appendix III Informed consent 51

Appendix IV A Questionnaire to determine bahaviour reinforcement for teachers. 53

Appendix IVC: Questionnaire to determine the extent of learning capabilities  55

Appendix V Sample size 56

Appendix VI Validity and reliability of the questionnaire 57

Apendix IX: Researcher’s curriculum vitae 58

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APA

Research, S. (2022). Behaviour Reinforcement and Learning Capabilities of Mentally Retarded Learners in Trans-nzoia East District, Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/behaviour-reinforcement-and-learning-capabilities-of-mentally-retarded-learners-in-trans-nzoia-east-district-kenya

MLA 8th

Research, SSA "Behaviour Reinforcement and Learning Capabilities of Mentally Retarded Learners in Trans-nzoia East District, Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 13 Sep. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/behaviour-reinforcement-and-learning-capabilities-of-mentally-retarded-learners-in-trans-nzoia-east-district-kenya. Accessed 14 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Research, SSA . "Behaviour Reinforcement and Learning Capabilities of Mentally Retarded Learners in Trans-nzoia East District, Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 13 Sep. 2022. Web. 14 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/behaviour-reinforcement-and-learning-capabilities-of-mentally-retarded-learners-in-trans-nzoia-east-district-kenya >.

Chicago

Research, SSA . "Behaviour Reinforcement and Learning Capabilities of Mentally Retarded Learners in Trans-nzoia East District, Kenya" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/behaviour-reinforcement-and-learning-capabilities-of-mentally-retarded-learners-in-trans-nzoia-east-district-kenya

Document Details
Field: Special Education Type: Thesis 70 PAGES (14080 WORDS) (pdf)