Bioefficacy Study Of Mosquito Repellent Produced From Ocimum Basilicum Using Aerosol Propellant As Carrier

ABSTRACT
Mosquito borne disease is a major public health problem globally, particularly the tropics being the major spot in the spread of malaria. The development of resistance to chemical insecticides has necessitated the research and development of natural mosquito repellent. The aim of this study is to extract, characterize and test the larvicidal activity of essential oil, produce mosquito repellent using the essential oil as its active ingredient and study the bioefficacy of the produced repellent on mosquito. 200g of Ocimum basilicum was extracted by soxhlet extraction method using n-hexane as solvent and percentage yield of the extract was calculated and found to be 12.85%. The essential oil extracted was characterized using FTIR and GC-MS. Production of mosquito repellent, larvicidal activity of essential oil and bioefficacy study of mosquito repellent were conducted. The FTIR spectral indicated the presence of C=O, C=C, C-H and O-H functional groups. GC-MS study showed 12 prominent peaks with retention time of 5.756, 5.914, 10.486, 16.871,17.947, 19.883, 19.974, 20.807, 21.020, 21.231, 21.712 and 22.008 indicating the presence of twelve phyto-constituents namely: 2,4-pentadienoic acid, butanedioic acid hydroxyl-dimetyl ester, pentanedioic acid 3-oxo-dimethyl ester, palmitic acid methyl ester, stearic acid, 13-tetradece-11-yn-1-ol, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z), hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadien-1-ol (Z,Z), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and E-9-tetradecenoic acid. The essential oil showed larvicidal activity on Anopheles mosquito larva at concentration of 3ml/L, 4ml/L and 5ml/L. The mosquito repellent produced showed increasing repellent efficacy against adult Anopheles mosquitoes with increasing concentration of the essential oil. Hence it was concluded that  Ocimum basilicum has a good efficacy as a repellent to Anopheles mosquitoes when used as active ingredient. The FTIR spectral reveal the presence of functional groups present in the essential oil which correlates with phyto-constituent identified by GC-MS characterization, with 9-octadecenoic (14.62%) having the highest % composition.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction1
1.1 Aim and objectives4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review5
2.1 Mosquito5
2.2 Malaria7
2.3 Epidemiology malaria in Nigeria9
2.4 Mosquito control methods10
2.4.1 Chemical control methods10
2.4.2 Non-chemical control methods10
2.4.3 Mechanical control methods12
2.4.4 Biological control methods13
2.5 Mosquito Repellent13
2.5.1 Classification of mosquito repellents13
2.5.2 Synthetic repellents14
2.5.3 Natural repellents15
2.5.4 Mechanism of action of mosquito repellents16
2.6 Secondary Metabolite17
2.7 Essential Oil18
2.8 Basil leaves20
2.8.1 Taxonomy and scientific classification of basil22
2.8.2 Ecology and distribution of Ocimum basilicum22
2.8.3 Medicinal uses of Ocimum basilicum23
2.9 Aerosol24
2.9.1 Propellant25
2.9.2 Types of propellant25

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methodology 27
3.1 Materials27
3.2 Collection and identification of plant samples27
3.3 Extraction process28
3.4 FTIR analysis of the essential oil extracted28
3.5 GC-MS analysis of the essential oil extracted29
3.6 Production of mosquito repellent29
3.7 Larvicidal activity of essential oil from basil30
3.8Breeding and bioefficacy testing of the mosquito 
repellent produced30

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results31

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion, conclusion and recommendation37
5.1 Discussion37
5.2 Conclusion38
5.3 Recommendation39
 References40

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APA

Udokop, U. (2018). Bioefficacy Study Of Mosquito Repellent Produced From Ocimum Basilicum Using Aerosol Propellant As Carrier. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/bioefficacy-study-of-mosquito-repellent-produced-from-ocimum-basilicum-using-aerosol-propellant-as-carrier-1728

MLA 8th

Udokop, Ubong "Bioefficacy Study Of Mosquito Repellent Produced From Ocimum Basilicum Using Aerosol Propellant As Carrier" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/bioefficacy-study-of-mosquito-repellent-produced-from-ocimum-basilicum-using-aerosol-propellant-as-carrier-1728. Accessed 18 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

Udokop, Ubong . "Bioefficacy Study Of Mosquito Repellent Produced From Ocimum Basilicum Using Aerosol Propellant As Carrier". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 18 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/bioefficacy-study-of-mosquito-repellent-produced-from-ocimum-basilicum-using-aerosol-propellant-as-carrier-1728 >.

Chicago

Udokop, Ubong . "Bioefficacy Study Of Mosquito Repellent Produced From Ocimum Basilicum Using Aerosol Propellant As Carrier" Afribary (2018). Accessed July 18, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/bioefficacy-study-of-mosquito-repellent-produced-from-ocimum-basilicum-using-aerosol-propellant-as-carrier-1728