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1.1    Background of study
               Union Bank of Nigeria plc is one of the first generation banks started to the colonial era. Formally known as Baraclays bank DCO (Dominion Colonial and Overseas) it was opened in1917.
               In compliance with the directive of the government in 1968, that all companies (Including Banks) must be incorporated  locally in Nigeria in1969 and its name was consequently changed to Baraclays Banks of Nigeria Limited with its registered Head office at 40 Marina Lagos.
              As a result of Nigerian Enterprises promotion decree of 1972 and 1977, the federal government of Nigeria acquired 52% of the Bank shares Leaving 40% for Barclays Bank international ltd (Now Baraclays-Bank plc) while the remaining 8% was taken up by the Nigerian public Baraclays Bank plc sold 20% of its shares to Nigerian in 1979 and the remaining 2% in June 1989.  Thus, it became an indigenous bank wholly managed by Nigerians.  And the name was changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Limited.  In 1990 the name was further changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.                                                                                                                                                                       
    The bank is one of the commercial bank that survives and strives during the nations economic unsteadiness.  Union bank of Nigeria plc currently has her corporate head office at 40 marina Lagos.  This Head office building “The STALLION PLAZA” is a 32 story edifice and is now the most magnificent and tallest building in Africa.
    The bank now has 9 Area office branches, including full indigenous branch in LONDON and SOUTH AFRICA respectively.  It has 5 staff training centres with on LAGOS, IBADAN, PORT-HARCOURT, ZARIA JOS.  The bank which is regarded as the largest employer of labour in banking industry in Nigeria, now has a staff strength of 8 workers.  It has some group of company such as union merchant bank, union assistance and union Homes.
    The bank is about 75% computerian and has an outstanding record in term of profitability.  As at Septembers 30th 1998 bank’s gross earnings total assets and deposit base stood at N13.8 billion N102.4 billion and N77 billion respectively.
    The principle and consent of budgeting centres around the optional allocation scarce resources.  Resources are limited but human wants are not only unlimited but also multifarious.  In order to make the best use of available resources, the principle of budgeting has to be adopted.
    Every business organization, government, sole propertor and banks employs the principle of budgeting as a control strategy.  Even individuals like salary earners hardly know that they are adopting the principle of budgeting when at the end of the month,  they try to reconcile their monthly salaries with their expenses for the month.
    The budgetary control strategy calls for the preparation of plane in the form of ideas and values for the future.  Budgeting cannot be performed in isolation.  This is one of the reasons that all managers should be financially aware because almost every decision taken will have financial implication and will therefore effect other department, even if this means they have less money available for their Own budget.
    Clearly, once a budget has been established it is necessary to set up  control and procedures which enables the  budget to be monitored.
    Budgetary control is the establishment of budget relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirement of actual with budgeted results either to secure by individual action the objective of the policy or the provide basis for its revision. It should be pointed out that there is on significant difference between the principles of budgeting control in either the banks or public sectors, the statement implies that as budgets are established for various elements of the bank managers are given responsibility foe the management  of  budget resources in those.
    Clearly, a strategy require information which has to be related to the delegate responsibilities within the bank, these should be related to the objectives of the  budget and then be monitored as  out turn figures  become available.  Overall, it was  felt that the budgetary control process and demand that it places on financial management skills represents the major challenges of change being faced by the bank.
    The budget can be a powerful tools for motivating people to achieve the bank objectives or it can lead to either bad or good consequence according the way it applied in various type of organization.
    Budgeting is essentially concerned with establishing a t plan or target of performance which co-ordinates all the activities of the business and calculating differences or various and analysising the reason for them. One general purpose of budget in bank, sole proprietor and government is to enable them to plan their financial resources which will be consumed and generated during the course of the budget period
        The period generally adopted for budgeting is one year and this usually coincides with the financial year of the bank.
    Finally, in introducing an effective budgeting strategy, management has to make penetrating critical and uncompromising study of the business to determine its strength and weakness in relation to what it is trying to achieve.  Budgets should be capable of change when circumstances changes so that the yardstick is a realistic attainable one. The strategy should operate to assist motivation and not simply be used as a bigstick or a pressure device.
This study is meant to look in to how the budgeting system serves as a control in the banking institution  in general with particular reference to the Union Bank Plc and also how the system contributes to the effectiveness and efficiency of the banking sector.
    Anderson and Rawn (1988) ascertained that the budget can be a powerful tool for motivating people to achieve the organizations objectives or it can be a positive hinderance”. It analyses the effects of budgeting on people and shows how it can lead to either bad or good consequences according to the way it is applied in various types of organization.
    Fremgren (1973) defined budget as a “Comprehensive and coordinate plan expressed in financial terms for the operations and resources of an enterprises for some specific period in the future.”.
    To Pandey (1985) a budget is a plan of the organizations manipulation of relevant variable (controllable and uncontrollable) and reduces the impact of uncertainty.  It activate the management into influencing. It activate the management into influencing the environment in the interest of the organization.
    (IMA (1990) budget is a plan qualified in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated and / or expenditure to be incurred and the capital to be employed to attain a given objective.  A budget is thus a standard with which to measure the actual achievement of people, department, firm etc to be effective, the budget must be well coordinated with related management and accounting system.
    Copeland and Dasher (1978) a good budget is a standard cost system which will proved data for reports according to responsibility.  Executives are responsible for the preparation and management of their own budget segments.  To be effective company official must participate in planning the budget and must understand their responsibilities in making the budget control.
    Koontz (1980) Budgeting has come of age.  It is becoming increasing important for some reasons, however accountants and managers seem reluctant to give it the respect it deserves still there has been a steady increase in the prominence of budgeting in both non- profit and profit seeking organization such as the banking institution in Nigeria Union Bank in particular.
    Budgeting has long been recognized as the accepted procedure for profit planning and many of the most successful companies have applied it with good results over a period of years.  The period generally adopted for budgeting in one year and this usually coincides with the financial year of the bank.
    Dreary (1985), the performance of management is judged by the profit earned in the financial year and an annual budgets enable management to focus  its attention and efforts on all the factors that on influence sales, services rendered and profit.  The essence of budgeting is o be closed to the events and a year is generally considered to be the ideal period.
    Morse (1981) in introduction an effective budgeting procedures management has to make penetrating critical and uncompring study of the business to determine its strengths and weakness in relation to what it is trying to achieve first of all it has to test the validity of its objective in relation to the  skill and resources of the business and to the particular competence required for its service and market . budgeting profitability for a future period. The budget has not only to take account of competition but it has to consider, the short term effects of all other factors that can influence the trading prospects for the period under review for example economic conditions and government constraints.
    Time dimension must be added to a budget. A budget is meaningful only when it is related to a specific period of time. The budget estimates will be relevant only for some specific period.

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Ugwu, A. (2018). BUDGETING AS A CONTROL STRATEGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIONBANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU OGUI ROAD). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/budgeting-as-a-control-strategy-a-case-study-of-unionbank-of-nigeria-plc-enugu-ogui-road-6804

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "BUDGETING AS A CONTROL STRATEGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIONBANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU OGUI ROAD)" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/budgeting-as-a-control-strategy-a-case-study-of-unionbank-of-nigeria-plc-enugu-ogui-road-6804. Accessed 10 Dec. 2023.


Ugwu, Anderson . "BUDGETING AS A CONTROL STRATEGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIONBANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU OGUI ROAD)". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Dec. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/budgeting-as-a-control-strategy-a-case-study-of-unionbank-of-nigeria-plc-enugu-ogui-road-6804 >.


Ugwu, Anderson . "BUDGETING AS A CONTROL STRATEGY (A CASE STUDY OF UNIONBANK OF NIGERIA PLC ENUGU OGUI ROAD)" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 10, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/budgeting-as-a-control-strategy-a-case-study-of-unionbank-of-nigeria-plc-enugu-ogui-road-6804