Civil War and Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 -2003

ABSTRACT 

This study examined the relationship between the 1996 and 2003 civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo, (DRC) and human rights violations in that country. The area of study was the African Great Lakes region, and the (DRC) was the unit of observation and analysis. The ex-post-facto design was adopted for the study. Data were collected from secondary sources. The secondary data were analyzed using the qualitative descriptive method, logical induction and content analysis. To enhance the quality of analysis, some inferential statistics, such as frequency distributions, simple percentages, diagrams and charts were also used. The theoretical framework was anchored on the radical (Marxist) constructivist approach to peace and conflict analysis. The analysis of both the qualitative and quantitative data of the effect of civil war on human rights violations in the DRC between 1996 and 2003 indicated that the civil war created many contradictions in the unequal struggle for economic and political power between contending groups. In our dis-aggregated study of the contemporary Congolese civil wars between (1996-1997, and 1998-2003), showed that about 5 million people died as a result of the conflict between August 1998, and April 2003 alone. Cross-national evidence revealed that parts of the DRC endowed with higher natural resource experienced more conflicts, violation of human rights and child soldiering, than others, in the process of the struggles for their accumulation. This indicated a positive relationship between the adversarial struggle for economic and political power amongst the contending groups, and violation of human rights in the DRC. The analysis further showed a positive relationship between renewed post-war contradictions, and continued new violations of socio-economic rights. Another key finding of the study was that many deaths were due to preventable causes, such as malnutrition and epidemic diseases and starvation which disproportionately affected young children. It was also revealed that the violations of social and economic rights created deep grievances after the war that promoted revenge issues and the resultant further violations of human rights. Based on these findings we recommended, among others, that the age-long practice of promoting ethnicity as the bases of legitimacy in the national politics of the DRC, should be discouraged, as this has not enhanced good governance and equity. Rather, it has fostered the breakdown of national unity, and facilitated human rights violations as evident in civil wars, child soldiering, widespread rapes, sexual violence, internally displaced persons, poverty and food insecurity and so on. 


Keywords: Civil War, Human Rights Violations, Contending Groups, Mineral Resources, Child Soldiers.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page- - - - - - - - - - i

Approval Page- - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgments - - - - - - - - iv

Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi

List of Tables - - - - - - - - - ix

List of Figures - - - - - - - - - x

Abbreviations - - - - - - - - - xii

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - xv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem- - - - - - - 15

1.3 Objectives of the Study- - - - - - - 22

1.4 Significance of the Study- - - - - - - 23

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction- - - - - - - - 25

2.1 The Concept of War - - - - - - - - 25

2.2 Typologies/ Categories of Armed Conflict - - - - - 42

2.3 Categories of Armed Violence in Peace and Conflict Studies - - 45

2.4 Perspectives on the Causes of War and Motivations behind the Use of Force- - - - - - - - - 53

2.5 The Character and Nature of the Causes of African Conflicts - - 73

2.6 Economic Explanations for Political Violence and Wars - - - 81

2.7 Efforts and Challenges of Control of Child Soldiers- - - 91

2.8 The Cost and Consequences of Civil War - - - - - 105

2.9 Human Rights, Trafficking of War Victims and Child Soldiering - 110

2.10 Gaps in the Literature- - - - - - - - 117

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction- - - - - - - - - 123

3.2 Theoretical Framework- - - - - - - 123

3.3 Hypotheses- - - - - - - - - 131

3.4 Research Design- - - - - - - - 132

3.5 Methods of Data Collection- - - - - - - 134

3.6 Methods of Data Analysis- - - - - - - 137

3.7 Logical Data Framework- - - - - - - 139

CHAPTER FOUR: CONTRADICTIONS FOR THE UNEQUAL STRUGGLE FOR ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL POWER BETWEEN CONTENDING GROUPS, CIVIL WAR, AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 149

4.1 The Dynamics of the Unequal Struggle for Economic and Political Powers between Contending Groups - - - - - 150

4.2 Political Legitimacy and Civil War of Legitimacy in the Democratic Republic of Congo - - - - - - - 153

4.3 The Political and Socioeconomic Context of Congo’s Internal Wars- 155

4.3.1 From Secession to the Mercenaries’ Mutiny - - - - 163

4.3.2 The Second Republic: From Consolidation to Collapse - - 169

4.3.3 Foundations of the Second Republic, Shaba Wars, and beyond.- - 172

4.3.4 From Kivu Ethnic Wars to anti-Mobutu Revolt - - - 176

4.3.5 From Civil Wars against Kabila to Hema-Lendu Ethnic War - 181

4.3.6 Mutiny of Force Publique - - - - - - 184

4.3.7 The Ethnic Dimension of the Land Issue - - - - 185

4.3.8 Rwandan Genocide - - - - - -- - 186

4.3.9 The Congolese Civil Wars - - - - - 187

4.3.10 Banyamulenge Rebellion - - - - - - 190

4.3.11 Ethnic Struggle for the Control of Congolese State through the Ballot Box- - - - - - - - - 191

4. 3.12 Answering Research Question One (1) and Empirical Verification of Hypothesis One - - - - - - - 202

4.3.13 Answering Research Question One and Empirical Verification of Hypothesis One (1) - - - - - - - 214

4.4 Internal Political Struggle for the Control of the Congolese Post-colonial State and Conflict in Post-Independence Era - - - - 219

4.4.1 The Politics of Regime Change and Ethnic Wars in the Congo - 226

4.5 The Politico-Socio-Economic and Humanitarian Costs of Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo - - - 254

CHAPTER FIVE: NEW POST-WAR CONTRADICTIONS, REVENGE ISSUES, AND THE RESULTANT FURTHER VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS, AND INTRACTABILITY OF THE CONGOLESE CONFLICT.

5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 273

5.1 New Post-War Negative Contradictions that Promoted Revenge And Resultant Further Violations of Human Rights - - - 273

5.2 Transnational Actors Engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo Civil Wars - - - - - - - - 280

5.3: China’s Interest in Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Minerals- - 299

5.4 Exploitation of Natural Resources, the Geography of War Economy, and Deployment of Child Solders by Internal and External Actors in the Democratic Republic of Congo - - - - 301

5.5 Answering Research Question Two (2) and Empirical Verification of Hypothesis Two (2) - - - - - - 311

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary of the Study - - - - - - 357

6.2 Conclusions - - - - - - - - 365

6.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 368

6.4 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - 372

6.5 Suggestion for Further Studies - - - - - 372

Bibliography- - - - - - - - 374

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APA

Consults, E. & ENATTO, A (2022). Civil War and Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 -2003. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/civil-war-and-human-rights-violations-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-1996-2003

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and AHMED ENATTO "Civil War and Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 -2003" Afribary. Afribary, 30 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/civil-war-and-human-rights-violations-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-1996-2003. Accessed 23 May. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and AHMED ENATTO . "Civil War and Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 -2003". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Nov. 2022. Web. 23 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/civil-war-and-human-rights-violations-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-1996-2003 >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and ENATTO, AHMED . "Civil War and Human Rights Violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 -2003" Afribary (2022). Accessed May 23, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/civil-war-and-human-rights-violations-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-1996-2003