Critical Examination Of The Uganda Laws On Sexual Harassment In Tertiary Institution Uganda

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ... ......... ... ...... .............. .. .............. ........ ..... ........ ...... .... .. .. .............................. .. ... ..... ..... ......... ..... i • APPROVAL ... .............. .... .. ... ....... ........ ........................ ...... ....... ............ ........ .................... .......... .............. '.' .. ..... ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................... ... ... ... ..................................................... ..... .. ..... ~ ........... ... ............. ... ...... iii

CHAPTER ONE ...... .... ..... ..................................... .. ...................... ........ ..................................... ....................... 1

INTRODUCTION ....................... ... . ... ....... .... ......... ........................ ........................... .... ....... .. .... .......... ............. 1

1.0 Introduction ...... .. ............. ................................... .......... ........................... .................. ..... ........ ...................... 1

1.1 Background to study ............................................... .................................................. .............................. ...... 2

1.2 Statement of the research problem ........................................................................... ..................................... 4

1.3 Purpose of the study ............. ., .............. . ................................................................................. .. ............ .. .. .. .. s

1.4 Objectives of the study .......... : .................................. ... ........................................... .................... ..... .............. 5

1.5 Research question ... ... .. ... .. ..... .. .......................................... .. ..... ..................................... .............. _. ........ ........ 5

1.6 Statement ofP1inciples ..................................................... ...... ................ .................... .. .............. , ....... ..... ..... 6

J .7 Sig!1ificance of the ~tudy . ..... ... ....... ... .. ··-· .... ... ..... ... .. ... . ... ... - ............. .. .... .. ..... .... ... ... . ..... . . .. ... ...... .. .. ... 6

1.8 Methodology ........................................................ ......... ........... =:: ······· ········· .. .... : .................... ...... ............... 7

1.8.1 Reliability of the instrument ... ..................................... .................. : ................................ ...... ........ ............. 7

1.8.2 Data gathering procedures ..................................... .. .......................................................... ........................ 7

1.8.3 Ethical considerations ....... ... .................................................................. ... ...................... .. ............ .... ......... 8

1.9 Limitations of the study ......... ... .. ............................... ......... .. .... .. ....... ......... ...... ..... .. ... .......... .. ............ .... ...... 8

1.10 Definition of technical tern1s ......................... . ............................. ...... ................. .... .... . ... ... .. .......... .. ..... .. ..... 9

l .11 Cauterization ............................. ............................. ....... ............. ...................... ............... .... . ...................... 9

1.1 2 Literature review . .... ... .. .. ......... ........ ... ........ :., .•... ~'·:·············· .. ···· ····················· ... ······ ···· ·· .. ·········· ··· ··· ···· ··· ····9

l. l 2. l Concept of sexual Harassment ................. ::•····:· ..... ............................ ... ......... ....... ....... . .......................... 10

1.1 2.2 Nature and Extent of Sexual Harassment in Organizations ................................. .. .................................. 11

1.1 2.3 The analysis of sexual harassment. ................. _..: ................................... .. ... .... . ..... ................... .... ............ 14

1.12.4 Factors Responsible for Sexual Harassment in .. the Workplace ........ ......... .... ................. .. .. .... .................. 17

1.12.5 Measures to Combat Sexual Harassment in Organizations ..................................................................... 18

1.12.6 Behavioral definiti ons . ." . ........... :: ................................... ......... ..................... .............. ............ ......... ... ..... 19

1.12.7 Legal definitions ...................... ....... ... ...................... .. ............ .. .......... .. ................... ........ ...... .... ....... ...... 20

1.12.8 Sexual harassment in ter tiary institutions .... .... ........ ...... .... .... ....... ... .......... ..... ........ ....... .. ........... ............ 22

1.12.9 Nature and extent of sexual harassment in tertiary institutions ..... ..... ........................... ....... ....... .... .. ....... 22

1.12.10 Effects of sexual harassment ..... ..................................................... .. ........ .. ....................... ........ ... ... ..... 26

1.1 2.11 Addressing sexual harassment in tertiary institutions ........... ... ............... .... ......... ...... ...... .... ... .. .......... ... 27

CHAPTER TWO .............. .................................. .. .......... .... .... ... ...................... ...................... .................. 30

THE PROTECTION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT RIGHTS IN INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL

HUMAN RIGHTS FRAMEWORK ... ......................... .................... ...... .......................... ......................... 30

2 .1 Introduction ........ .... ............ ................................................ ... .... ............. ................................ ... .. .. . .......... .. 30

2.2 International human rights framework ..... ................ ..... ... .................... ................. ........... ............... ............ 31

2.3 UN human rights treaty bodies ...... ... ... ........... ... .. ................. ... ..... ........... ............ ..... ................ ... ......... .. .. .. 33

2.3.1 Co1n1nunications .. ............. .. .. ... ............ ............................... ... ......... ....... .. ...... . ............ . ......... ... .. ......... .... 34

2.3.2 State reporting ..................... ... .... ...... ... . ................ ........... .......... ....... ............................................. ... .... ... 35

2.3.3 General comments ....... ... ... ........................................................................................................ ...... __ ...... 36

2.3.4 Protection of Sexual Minorities u nder the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights .. ... ........... 38

2.3.4.1 Privacy under ICCPR ...... .. ........ ... ............................................................ .......... ............................ ...... 39

2.3.5 Ew-opean Jurisprudence on sexual minorities: European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights

and Fundamental Freedoms ............................... ... .. ........................................................ ... ... .. .. .... ......... ....... .... 40

iii

2.3.5.1 Privacy under the Eurupean Convention..... . ................... .40

2.3.5.2 Equality under ICCPR .......................................... . ......................... .41

2.3.6 IC CPR obligations on African State parties: Non-discrimination on basis of sexual orientation ................ 42

2.3.7 The relevance of the European system and United Nation system ............................................................ 43

2.4. The UN Charter based system ................................................................................................................... 45

2.4.1 The UN Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of

physical and mental health (SR on health) ........................................................................................................ 45

2.5. The Universal Periodic Review ................................................................................................................. 46

2.5.1 Soft law ................................................................................................................................................... 46

2.5.2 The Yogyakarta principles ....................................................................................................................... 47

2.5.3 Statement of human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity (statement on human rights) ............... .47

2.6 Regional human rights law ......................................................................................................................... 48

2.6.1 The African human rights system ............................................................................................................ 48

2.6.2 The African Union ................................................................................................................................... 48

2.6.3 The African Liii11111iss1011·011 Human and l'eoples· Right:r.: ........................................... : ................ :·.: ....... 48

2.6.3.1 Cvn1111unieation:::. .............................................................................- .-........................... :. ........................ 48

2.7.3.2 State reporting ...................................................................................................................................... 49

2.7 The African Peer Review Mcchanism ......................................................................................................... 50

2.7.l Universalism as against cultural relativism .............................................................................................. 50

2.8 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 51

CIIAPTER TIIREE ...................................................................................... : .......................................... 53

TllE ATTITl.DE TO SEXl AL HARASSilENT RICIITS IN l'GANDA, BOTSW,NA. ,1ALA WI. AND

SOUTll AFRIC. ................................................................................. : ..... .': ............................................ 53

3.1 lntroduction ............................................................................................... .' .. .' ............................................. 53

3.1.1 Origins of Anti-homosexuality Laws and 1-lomophobin in Ugandn ............ : .............................................. 53

3.2 The trentment ofsexunl harnssment rights in Ugandn ........................... : ...................................................... 57

3.2.1 The Constitution of Uganc ..................................................................................................................... 57

3.2.2 The Penal Code Act ofUganda ......................... :: ............... '. ..................................................................... 58

3.2.3 The attitude of the judiciary towards sexual harnssment rights ................................................................. 59

3.3.3 The Anti-Homosexuality Act 2014 .......................................................................................................... 60

3.3 Botswana·s treatment of sexual harassment rights ...................................................................................... 63

3.3.1 The Constitution of Botswana and sexual harassment rights .................................................................... 63

3.3.2 The Penal Code of Botswana ................................................................................................................... 65

3.3.3 The attitude of the judiciary towards sexual harassment rights in Botswana ............................................. 65

3.4 The trentment of sexual harassment rights in Malawi .................................................................................. 67

3.4.1 The Constitution of Malawi ..................................................................................................................... 67

3.4.2 The Penal Code of Malawi ...................................................................................................................... 68

3.4.3 The attitude of the judiciary towards sexual harassment rights in Malawi ................................................ 68

3.5 The treatment of sexual harassment rights in Solllh Africa .......................................................................... 69

3.5.1 The Constitution of South Africa ............................................................................................................. 69

3.5.2 The criminal laws of South Africa ........................................................................................................... 70

3.5.3 The attitude ofthejudicinry towards sexual harassment rights ................................................................. 70

3.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................. 71

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................................... 73

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APA

TONNY, O (2021). Critical Examination Of The Uganda Laws On Sexual Harassment In Tertiary Institution Uganda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/critical-examination-of-the-uganda-laws-on-sexual-harassment-in-tertiary-institution-uganda

MLA 8th

TONNY, OWOR "Critical Examination Of The Uganda Laws On Sexual Harassment In Tertiary Institution Uganda" Afribary. Afribary, 03 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/critical-examination-of-the-uganda-laws-on-sexual-harassment-in-tertiary-institution-uganda. Accessed 29 May. 2024.

MLA7

TONNY, OWOR . "Critical Examination Of The Uganda Laws On Sexual Harassment In Tertiary Institution Uganda". Afribary, Afribary, 03 Jun. 2021. Web. 29 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/critical-examination-of-the-uganda-laws-on-sexual-harassment-in-tertiary-institution-uganda >.

Chicago

TONNY, OWOR . "Critical Examination Of The Uganda Laws On Sexual Harassment In Tertiary Institution Uganda" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 29, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/critical-examination-of-the-uganda-laws-on-sexual-harassment-in-tertiary-institution-uganda

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OWOR DAVID TONNY Field: Law Type: Thesis 86 PAGES (30103 WORDS) (pdf)