CULTURE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN BUCHI EMECHETA’S THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHIMAMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS

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ABSTRACT
Over the years, the major challenge facing the female folk is discrimination and unfair treatment in the society. This work discusses cultural practices that discriminate against women. This research work is a critical analysis of two African novels: Buchi Emecheta’s The Joy of motherhood, and Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus. For secondary sources, materials were got from the internet and library. It is discovered that several cultural practices discriminate and oppress the female folks. Such practices are identified in the selected texts for this work and critically examined. It is hoped that an awareness of such practices will eventually eradicate the social inequalities that are engendered by such practice in the African society.
                                                             
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page        i 
 Certification        ii
Dedication        iii
Acknowledgement       iv
Abstract        v
Table of content       vi

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY   
1.0 Introduction.        1
1.1 Purpose of Study.                                      3
1.2 Justification.                                                                   3                                  
1.3 Scope and Limitation.                                                4
1.4 Research Problems.         4
1.5 Research Methodology     4

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW                                                  
2.0 Introduction       6                                                
2.1  Origin of Feminism.                                                               6
2.1.1 Definition of Feminism.                                                          7
2.1.2 Aims of Feminism.       8
2.1.3 Types of Feminism.         9
2.1.4 Feminists in Africa.      10
2.2.0 Discrimination.                                                                     11
2.2.1 Type of Discrimination.     12
2.2.2 Discrimination against Women.                                             13
2.3.0 Cultural Against Women     14  
2.3.1 Subordination of Women.                                                       15
2.3.2 Female Oppression in Widowhood Practices.                        17             
2.3.3 Female Genital Cutting/Female Circumcision.          19
2.3.4 Polygamous Practices                         20
2.3.5 Female Sacrifice                              22
2.4. Background Information on Buchi Emecheta and a Synopsis of the Joys of Motherhood        23
2.5. Chimamanda Adichie (Purple Hibiscus)    24

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Introduction       26 
3.1  Practices against Women     26
3.1.1 Preference of Male over Female Child   26
3.1.2 Polygamous Practices      30 
3.1.2.1 Acquisition of Concubine     31
3.1.2.2 Disrespect to Legal Wives     32
3.1.2.3 Multiple Wives      33
3.1.3 Maltreatment of Wives by Husbands    34
3.1.3.1 Wife Battering       34
3.1.3.2 Denial of Marital Rights     35
3.1.3.3 Dereliction of Duties      36
3.1.4 Marriage and Bride Price     37
3.1.5 Female Sacrifice       38
3.1.5.1 Sacrifice of Life/salve Murder    39
3.1.5.2 Sacrifice to Gods      39
3.1.5.3 Sacrifice to Marriage      40
3.1.6 Widowhood Practices      41
3.1.6.1 Marriage to Deceased’s Brother    41
3.1.6.2 Maltreatment of Widows     42
3.1.6.3 Effect of Widowhood Practices on Families   42 
3.2 Cultural Beliefs about Motherhood    43
3.2.1. Child Bearing (Male)      43
3.3.2 Ensure Peace and Order      44
3.2.3 Valuing Children      45
3.2.4 Being a Prisoner       46
3.3  Survival of Women without Men    47
3.4 Conclusion       48

CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS OF PURPLE HIBISCUS
4.0 Introduction.       49
4.1 Discrimination against women in Purple Hibiscus  49
4.1.1 Violence against women     49
4.1.1.1 Wife Battering       49
4.1.1.2 Wife Enslavery      51
4.1.1.3 Wife Desertion                              52
4.1.2 Preference of male to female child    53
4.1.3 Maltreatment of women by men    55
4.1.4 Interference in families     56
4.2 Child Upbringing      57
4.3 Effect of Parentage on Children    60
4.4 Effects of Discrimination on Women    62 
4.5 Survival of women without men    63
4.6 Conclusion.       65

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION       
5.0 Introduction.       66
5.1 Summary.       66
5.2 Findings.       67
5.3 Conclusion       70
5.4 Recommendations      71 
Bibliography       73
 
INTRODUCTION

Throughout history women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men, wifehood and womanhood were considered as women’s most significant professions, and they were long considered naturally weaker than men. Their rights and being were taken for granted. Silence became the virtue of women but with education, the silence was broken. Chambers 21st.century dictionary (2004, p. 327) says:
Culture is the custom, ideas, values etc of a particular civilization, society or social group, especially at a particular time, and the appreciation of art, music, literature etc. improvement and development through care and training. 

Reuters .T. (2011, p.1) reports that; “Discrimination is to distinguish, single out, or make a distinction in everyday life, when faced with more than one option.” For the purpose of this research, the definition of women in chambers 21st century dictionary (2004, p.1631) will be used “women generally: the female sex.” Wikipedia (2010) assert that; “discrimination against women is the attitude and beliefs in relation to the female gender that they are less important, such beliefs and attitudes are of social nature and do not normally carry any legal consequences.”
With these definitions, we can therefore define culture and discrimination against women as the cultural practices against the female folks that support men. Discrimination against women has become customs passed from generations to generations. In African, many cultural practices are against women. Women are beaten by husbands and are always blamed for not been able to produce children. Even when it is not confirmed that they are responsible for the marital problems, they suffer for those problems. Married woman could be replaced at anytime by their husbands because culture supports that men could marry many women.
Female children are not always given the best upbringing; they are trained in the kitchen, instead of school. Male children are brought up well because they are known to be the people who will take their family from generations to generation. Therefore, with the use of Buchi Emecheta’s work, The Joys of Motherhood, many discriminatory acts against woman will be analyzed; to signify the cultural practices discriminating against women. Also, through the works of Chimamanda Adichie; Purple Hibiscus, discrimination against women will be identified. Cultural practices discriminating against women have been on for long and needs to stop.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). CULTURE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN BUCHI EMECHETA’S THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHIMAMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/culture-and-discrimination-against-women-in-buchi-emecheta-rsquo-s-the-joys-of-motherhood-and-chimamanda-adichie-rsquo-s-purple-hibiscus-6363

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "CULTURE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN BUCHI EMECHETA’S THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHIMAMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/culture-and-discrimination-against-women-in-buchi-emecheta-rsquo-s-the-joys-of-motherhood-and-chimamanda-adichie-rsquo-s-purple-hibiscus-6363. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "CULTURE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN BUCHI EMECHETA’S THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHIMAMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/culture-and-discrimination-against-women-in-buchi-emecheta-rsquo-s-the-joys-of-motherhood-and-chimamanda-adichie-rsquo-s-purple-hibiscus-6363 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "CULTURE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN BUCHI EMECHETA’S THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHIMAMANDA ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/culture-and-discrimination-against-women-in-buchi-emecheta-rsquo-s-the-joys-of-motherhood-and-chimamanda-adichie-rsquo-s-purple-hibiscus-6363