Designing An Algorithm That Can Influence Children’s Behaviour Online And Raise Their Cyber Security Awareness

SSA Research Jennyphar Kavikairiua 231 PAGES (40307 WORDS) Thesis
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Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1

1.1. Background of the study .................................................................................................................... 1

1.2. Problem statement ............................................................................................................................ 4

1.3. Objectives of the study ...................................................................................................................... 4

1.4. Research questions ............................................................................................................................ 5

1.5. Significance of the research ............................................................................................................... 5

1.6. Research limitations ........................................................................................................................... 5

1.7. Research ethical considerations ........................................................................................................ 5

1.8. Thesis layout ...................................................................................................................................... 6

1.9. Chapter summary............................................................................................................................... 6

Chapter 2: Literature Review ........................................................................................................................ 7

2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 7

2.2. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) .............................................................................................. 9

2.3. Children’s online behaviour ........................................................................................................ 12

2.4. Online activities of children that motivates them to interact with strangers ............................ 15

2.5. The extent of Internet behaviour and activities by children ...................................................... 16

2.6. Online behaviour analysing tools ................................................................................................ 29

2.7. Cyber security awareness strategies........................................................................................... 38

2.8. Approaches used to constitute online behaviour influencing algorithms .................................. 40

2.9. Chapter summary........................................................................................................................ 41

Chapter 3: Research Methodology ............................................................................................................. 43

3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 43

3.2. Human-Computer Interaction research paradigms .................................................................... 43

Motivation for design science ............................................................................................................. 45 3.3. The research philosophy ............................................................................................................. 45

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3.3.1. Research paradigm ............................................................................................................. 47

3.3.2. Research process ................................................................................................................ 48

3.4. Participants and sampling ................................................................................................................ 50

3.5. Data collection ................................................................................................................................. 50

3.6. Data analysis .................................................................................................................................... 51

3.7. Evaluation of the finished behaviour influencing algorithm ........................................................... 51

3.7.1. Informed argument of using relevant literature ....................................................................... 52

3.7.2. Persuasion theory ..................................................................................................................... 52

3.7.3. Expert reviews ..................................................................................................................... 54

3.8. Research ethical considerations ...................................................................................................... 54

3.9. Chapter summary............................................................................................................................. 55

Chapter 4: Research Findings ...................................................................................................................... 56

4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 56

4.2. Platforms mostly visited by children on the Internet ................................................................. 57

4.3. Extent of Internet activities usage by children ........................................................................... 59

4.3.1. Social networking sites actively used .................................................................................. 61

4.4. Things children know how to do on the Internet ....................................................................... 62

4.4.1. How true is this of you? ...................................................................................................... 64

4.5. Devices used to access the Internet and time spent on the device per day .............................. 65

4.6. Where you access the Internet from .......................................................................................... 66

4.7. Types of information shared online with strangers .................................................................... 67

4.7.1. Would you share the following while online? .................................................................... 70

4.7.2. Do you feel compelled to the following? ............................................................................ 70

4.8. Negative online experience ........................................................................................................ 72

4.8.1. Other Internet use related risks .......................................................................................... 76

4.8.2. Gender ................................................................................................................................ 77

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4.9. Chapter summary........................................................................................................................ 78

Chapter 5: Algorithm Design ....................................................................................................................... 81

5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 81

5.2. Algorithm design ......................................................................................................................... 82

5.2.1. COSBIA design methodology ............................................................................................... 82

5.2.2. STAGE 1: Identify problem and motive ............................................................................... 83

5.2.3. STAGE 2: Define the objective of a solution ....................................................................... 84

5.2.4. STAGE 3: Design and development ..................................................................................... 85

5.2.5. STAGE 4: Demonstration of COSBIA ................................................................................... 98

5.2.6. STAGE 5: Algorithm evaluation ......................................................................................... 115

5.2.7. STAGE 6: Communication ................................................................................................. 135

5.3. Chapter summary...................................................................................................................... 135

Chapter 6: Recommendations and Conclusion................................................................................... 136

6.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 136

6.2. Research contributions ............................................................................................................. 138

6.3. Lessons learnt ........................................................................................................................... 139

6.4. Research limitations .................................................................................................................. 140

6.5. Future considerations ............................................................................................................... 140

6.5.1. Study summary ..................................................................................................................... 140

References ................................................................................................................................................ 142

List of Appendices ..................................................................................................................................... 158

Appendix A: Faculty Postgraduate Committee Ethical Approval Letter ............................................... 159

Appendix B: Ministry of Education Permission Letter .......................................................................... 160

Appendix C: Ministry of Education Approval Letter ............................................................................. 162

Appendix D: Schools Permission Letter ................................................................................................ 163

Appendix E: Parental Consent Letters .................................................................................................. 165

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Appendix F: Questionnaires .................................................................................................................. 167

Appendix G: Expert Review Evaluation Form ....................................................................................... 174

Appendix H: COSBIA Game Concept ..................................................................................................... 188

Appendix I: COSBIA Game Evaluation Criteria ...................................................................................... 201

Appendix J: Publications ....................................................................................................................... 202

Appendix K: Children’s COSBIA Evaluation ........................................................................................... 212

Appendix L: Editor’s Report ..................................................................................................................

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APA

SSA, R (2021). Designing An Algorithm That Can Influence Children’s Behaviour Online And Raise Their Cyber Security Awareness. Afribary.com: Retrieved May 10, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/designing-an-algorithm-that-can-influence-children-s-behaviour-online-and-raise-their-cyber-security-awareness

MLA 8th

Research, SSA. "Designing An Algorithm That Can Influence Children’s Behaviour Online And Raise Their Cyber Security Awareness" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 02 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/designing-an-algorithm-that-can-influence-children-s-behaviour-online-and-raise-their-cyber-security-awareness . Accessed 10 May. 2021.

MLA7

Research, SSA. "Designing An Algorithm That Can Influence Children’s Behaviour Online And Raise Their Cyber Security Awareness". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 02 May. 2021. Web. 10 May. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/designing-an-algorithm-that-can-influence-children-s-behaviour-online-and-raise-their-cyber-security-awareness >.

Chicago

Research, SSA. "Designing An Algorithm That Can Influence Children’s Behaviour Online And Raise Their Cyber Security Awareness" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed May 10, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/designing-an-algorithm-that-can-influence-children-s-behaviour-online-and-raise-their-cyber-security-awareness