Effect of Child Labour on School Attendance and Academic Performance in Kaura, Kaduna State


1.1Background to the Study------1

1.2Statement of the Problem------5

1.3Objectives of the Study------6

1.4Research Questions-------6

1.5Research Hypotheses-------7

1.6Significance of the Study------7

1.7Scope of the Study-------8

1.8Definition of Terms-------8


2.1Conceptual Framework------12

2.1.1The Concept of Child Labour and Neglect----12

2.1.2Types of Child Labour-------14

2.1.3Effects/Implication of Child Labour on Child Development--18

2.1.4Legislations against Child Labour and Neglect in Nigeria--25

2.1.5The Concept of Academic Performance/Achievements--27

2.1.6Factors affecting Academic Performance----29

2.2Theoretical Framework------37

2.2.1Weiner's Model of Attributions-----37

2.3Empirical Studies-------41



3.1Area of Study--------46

3.2Research Design-------47

3.3Population of the Study------47

3.4Sample Size Determination/Sampling Technique---47

3.5Kinds and Sources of Data------48

3.6Methods of Data Collection------49

3.7Validity of Instruments------50

3.8Operational Measure of Variables-----50

3.9Model Specification-------52

3.10Model Justification-------52

3.11Method of Data Analysis------54




Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretations---55

Discussion of Findings------62

Summary of Findings-------64







5.5.Limitations of the Study------70

5.6.Suggestions for Further Studies-----71




This research investigates the effect of child labour on school attendance and academic performance in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Specifically, the study tried to; identify the personal characteristics of pupils’ and teachers in public primary school in Kaura Local Government Area and investigate the effect of child labour on pupils’ academic performance in primary school. In order to achieve these objectives, the following research questions were advanced; (i) what is the extent of the effect of child labour on pupils’ assessment grades and academic performance?(ii) What is the extent of the effect of child labour on pupils’ participation in class activities and academic performance? Two research hypotheses were also formulated in furtherance of the study; (i) Child labour has no significant effects on pupils’ assessment grades and academic performance (ii) Child labour has no significant effects on pupils’ participation in class activities and academic performance. The study uses the survey design and the population of the study was the 195public primary schools identified in Kaura Local Government Area. However the research selected 20 out of them for a closer study through the simple random sampling technique. Primary data was collected through the use of questionnaire, presented and analyzed by means of simple percentages. A cut-off mean of 2 points was the bench mark for answering research questions and hypotheses were tested using the one-sample t-test. The research revealed that; child labour has significant effects on both pupils’ assessment grades and their participation in class activities; and thus concludes that child labour has significant effects on pupils’ academic performance in primary school. It was recommended that; child labour and it effects should receive attention in education policy forums; and that parents should always relate to their children with love and affection and provide for their needs; there should be public enlightenment programs to combat mass ignorance and public awareness on the right to freedom from all forms of child labour; as much as possible, teachers/caregivers should avoid the use of corporal punishment because it only teaches children that violence is the best way of maintaining control and it encourages them to hit other children; there should be provision of nurturing and supportive child friendly school, learning environment free from noise, distractions, discrimination and labour of any kind; a child should not be disciplined when the adult’s anger is out of control; intense awareness should be created among teachers and school managers using seminars, workshops and training programs about what constitutes child labour; all forms of labour should be exposed to this class of caregivers so as to draw their attention to some of the unintentional acts that bother on child labour; teaching profession should be professionalized to ensure that there is no one teaching as a second best option, this would ensure that people in this profession really see it as their contribution to society’s development; and penalty for teachers’ who commit sexual labour with their students should be severe enough to deter other perpetrators.



1.1Background to the Study

Child labour is not a new phenomenon in the history of man. It has been going on right from time immemorial. In Africa/Nigerian society what constitute labour today has never been regarded as labour. It has been seen as a way of training the child to become a well behaved, disciplined and self actualized person in society. It is a normal process that children from birth be exposed to a variety of experiences from parents, caregivers and other adults in the society. This is to enable the children acquire the necessary basic norms and skills for effective participation in the society where they belong and for their personal growth and development.

The process of acquiring these skills is sometimes stressful for the children to bear. Some parents and care givers make the condition for acquiring these skills so difficult that the children may find it difficult to cope. The condition in which children are exposed to as they try to acquire the skills to become disciplined and hardworking individuals is where the problems lie. When these conditions become over-stretched it becomes an labour. For instance, when a child is taught the skills of becoming a farmer, he is taken to the farm, he practice these skills and he is kept in the farm doing that same work from dawn to dusk, without any rest, or having a good meal, this becomes an labour (Apebende, Umoren, Ukpepi and Ndifon, 2010). Also it may be normal if a child is asked to hawk from morning to evening or before going to school he sales and immediately after school he continues until dusk. This becomes an labour. Orere-Clifferd (2011) states that children suffer from child labour because their parents and guardian demand a great deal from them for more than the children would bear. Most children in our public primary schools find themselves in such situation most often.

Child labour is found in all societies and social class. It is found in the rich or poor home, as well as illiterate or literate homes. The parents labour their children by frequently using them in their farm work, trade and businesses. This is to help support the income of the home and sometimes to provide for children needs. They are sometime asked by their parents to do some menial jobs such as house helps, cooks, baby sitters, and gardeners to help improve the income of the home (Apebende, Umoren, Ukpepi and Ndifon, 2010).

The rich on the other hand have enough to care for their children but they exploit the children they employ as house helps and cooks. This they do by over working the servants in the daily house chores, while their own children are over pampered.

The servants or house helps work 24 hours a day, without any rest. Others do not have good food, clothes and sometimes no good place to lay their heads. Some are treated like animals, they are beaten, kicked pushed, and sometimes, hot oil, water and even acid is used on them. (Falaye, 2013).

Many more, caregivers called abusive names such as; good for nothing, block head, etc. sometimes some are tired hands and feet and locked in a room, for hours and even days. These actions demoralize the child (Falaye, 2013).

Those who go to school may not be attentive in class because of the work they do at home. The classroom may be the only place where they have a rest from such home activities so they may fall asleep in the class. They may therefore not partake in classroom activities and so may not acquire any learning (Apebende, Umoren, Ukpepi and Ndifon, 2010).

The children of the rich parents may not be allowed to take part in the general activities in the home. They may therefore not know how to cook, wash or care generally for the home. This constitutes an labour because the child needs to be exposed to such activities because it is certain that the child may need such knowledge in future (Falaye, 2013).

The term child labour is seen as the process by which children are exposed to maltreatments by parents or guardian (Apebende, Umoren, Ukpepi and Ndifon, 2010). Axmaher (2010) defined child labour as any mistreatment or neglect of the child that result in non-accidental harm or injury and which cannot be reasonably explained. Obekpa (2011) view child labour as any condition injurious to physical or emotional health that has been inflicted by parents, guardian or other caretakers. Igbo and Ekoja (2013) defines it as a non-accidental injury inflicted on a child by a parent or guardian.

An labour according to Isanghedehi (2004) could be seen in three perspectives physical, emotional, and sexual labour. To Oniyama, Oniyama and Asamaigbo (2004), child labour manifest in four main categories viz; physical labour, sexual labour, emotional labour and neglect.

Physical labour refers to any contact with the body of the child, which may result in an injury. Such contact may involve beating, hitting, kicking, shaking, punching, biting or any act or omission that is not an accident but that which brings some injuries to the child’s body.

Emotional labour is any act on the part of a parents or caregiver that has the potential for or has actually caused serious emotional cognitive, mental or behavioral disorders. Emotional labour is evident when a parent or care giver uses abusive words such as blockhead, good for nothing, a mistake, on the child or when the child is locked up in a room, tired both hands and feet, or not allowed to make friends. Mba (2013) maintained that emotional labour implies constantly blaming the child, belittling and or berating the child, being unconcerned about the child’s welfare and overtly rejection of the child by parents or caretakers or caregivers.

Sexual labour occurs when a parent or care giver engages in inappropriate sexual behaviours with the child. This may take the form of actual sexual intercourse, kissing, or foundling or genitals or either the labourr or the labourd. According to Uzoezie (2004) sexual labour occurs when an adult or older person uses his or her power over a child. The labour may trick, bribe, threaten and if possible force a child to take part in sexual activity.

Neglect according to Okpara (2001) include inadequate feeding, shelter and lack of supervision, inadequate body care, poor clothing, poor and denial of medicinal attention and inadequate provision of educational materials and supervision. Other aspects of neglect may include letting the child live in a filthy environment and non provision of proper nourishment.

Other aspects of child labour may include child exploitation, slavery, trafficking and abandonment. The different forms of labour affect the child in all spheres of life including academic attainment.

Conversely, a child is said to be labourd when the parents, care givers or any human action leads to physical, emotional and sexual labour of the child. It also involves failure of the parents to provide the necessary love and care for the child.

It has been observed of late that the academic performance of children in public primary schools in the State, particularly, in Kaura Local government Area is becoming low. One wonders if such low academic performance is as a result of the maltreatment children are exposed to. The study therefore seeks to find out if child labour has any effect on the academic performance of primary school pupils. Specially, the big question is; does physical, emotional and sexual labour affects the academic performance of primary school pupils?

The major objective of the study is to determine the effect of child labour on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Kaura Local Government of Kaduna State, specifically, the academic performance of pupils who are physically, emotionally and sexually labourd.

1.2Statement of the Problem

At the heart of every educational system lays the desire for the students, teachers and the institutions to achieve their educational goals; however, the extent to which this desire is achieved in the study period of a student varies based on individual differences. Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and personality. Students with higher mental ability as demonstrated by IQ tests and those who are higher in conscientiousness (linked to effort and achievement motivation) tend to perform 

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, J (2023). Effect of Child Labour on School Attendance and Academic Performance in Kaura, Kaduna State. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-child-labour-on-school-attendance-and-academic-performance-in-kaura-kaduna-state

MLA 8th

, Jerryflow "Effect of Child Labour on School Attendance and Academic Performance in Kaura, Kaduna State" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Oct. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-child-labour-on-school-attendance-and-academic-performance-in-kaura-kaduna-state. Accessed 23 Jul. 2024.


, Jerryflow . "Effect of Child Labour on School Attendance and Academic Performance in Kaura, Kaduna State". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Oct. 2023. Web. 23 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-child-labour-on-school-attendance-and-academic-performance-in-kaura-kaduna-state >.


, Jerryflow . "Effect of Child Labour on School Attendance and Academic Performance in Kaura, Kaduna State" Afribary (2023). Accessed July 23, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-child-labour-on-school-attendance-and-academic-performance-in-kaura-kaduna-state