In Kenya, user charges can be classified as one of the factors that influence the participation in secondary education; they typically add to the cost of education faced by households resulting to children from the poor households being in and out of school due to financial constraints. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of user charges on participation in education among students in Kitui County, Kenya. The objectives of this study were to identify the types of user charges, to find out the effect of user charges on the daily attendance of the students, to investigate the effect of user charges on completion of assignments by the students and to find out the effect of user charges on the performance at continuous assessment tests by students in public secondary schools. This study was premised on the theory of justice and fairness as developed by John Rawls. This study used descriptive survey research design. The target population was 308 which comprised of all the 42 principals and 266 class teachers in public secondary schools in the study locale. A sample size of 154 was used which comprised of 21 principals and 133 class teachers. Two research instruments namely questionnaires and document analysis schedules were used. The questionnaires were piloted in two schools to refine the instruments while content and face validity was determined through consultation of a three experts panel in Educational Planning. Results for the reliability level of principals' questionnaire was 0.77 while reliability level for the teacher's questionnaire was 0.74. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. Results generated from various data categories were presented in graphs and tables to enhance clarity. On the types of user charges in public secondary schools, the study found out that all the schools levy a number of user charges ranging from purchase of text books and other educational materials to motivational charges. The study found out that on average, 16% of the students are absent from school due to fee balances. The study found that 55% of the principals and 49% of the teachers felt that the escalation of fees and levies charged to a high extent contribute to poor performance in class work assignments among the students. In addition, 35% of the principals and 38% of the teachers felt that the extent to which user charges contribute to poor performance among the students is high. Based on the research findings, the study recommends that the level of financing of education by the government and other stakeholder should be increased in order to cater for some hidden costs. Also, school administrators should find alternative sources of income to supplement the funds raised through fee levies. Lastly, the government should enforce regulations on fees charged in public secondary schools in Kenya. The findings of this study shall benefit the government by giving an insight of the effect of user charges on participation in secondary education. Further, the findings shall enlighten planners and educators on possible strategies of enhancing participation in secondary education and rekindle more research in financing secondary school education in general and the effect of user charges on secondary school participation in particular.
WAMBUI, W (2021). Effect Of User Charges On Participation In Education Among Students In Public Secondary Schools In Kitui County, Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-user-charges-on-participation-in-education-among-students-in-public-secondary-schools-in-kitui-county-kenya
WAMBUI, WAINAINA "Effect Of User Charges On Participation In Education Among Students In Public Secondary Schools In Kitui County, Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 28 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-user-charges-on-participation-in-education-among-students-in-public-secondary-schools-in-kitui-county-kenya. Accessed 26 Mar. 2023.
WAMBUI, WAINAINA . "Effect Of User Charges On Participation In Education Among Students In Public Secondary Schools In Kitui County, Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 28 May. 2021. Web. 26 Mar. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-user-charges-on-participation-in-education-among-students-in-public-secondary-schools-in-kitui-county-kenya >.
WAMBUI, WAINAINA . "Effect Of User Charges On Participation In Education Among Students In Public Secondary Schools In Kitui County, Kenya" Afribary (2021). Accessed March 26, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-user-charges-on-participation-in-education-among-students-in-public-secondary-schools-in-kitui-county-kenya