After clearing for crops, logging is the most important human-driven factor responsible for the reduction of forest cover in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, wood represents about 86% of household energy consumption and the demand is expected to rise to 45% over the next 30 years due to the population growth and increasing needs in this part of the world. Charcoal is widely used as a domestic fuel for cooking in many towns and cities in developing countries as it is cleaner and easier to use than wood. Charcoal production in tropical regions of the world is often perceived to have devastating ecological and environmental effects, and governments, public forestry institutions and nongovernmental organizations have been particularly concerned about these charcoal related impacts. The most commonly cited impact of charcoal production is deforestation, i.e., the clearance of forest or woodland. Forest degradation refers to less obvious changes in the woody canopy cover while deforestation is the more or less complete loss of forest cover that is often associated with forest clearance. Degradation therefore represents the temporary or permanent reduction in the density, structure, species composition or productivity of vegetation cover. Currently charcoal production in tropical countries of the world largely depends on natural forests in which natural regeneration is the main source of forest recovery. However, the charcoal industry can generate employment and local income in both rural and urban areas where; Charcoal is recognized as a key source of energy, there is a specific institution to implement wood energy policies, production of charcoal from plantations and natural woodlands is well planned, resources are allocated on a yearly basis for plantation establishment, there is strong public and private sector participation and charcoal is a formal and lucrative industry, there are clear marketing arrangements and rules, traders are organized into a formal association recognized by the government, the government raises royalties and taxes which are reinvested in establishing plantations. In all this, enhancing policy and program legitimacy through multi-stakeholder participation and demonstration of coherence with globally recognized principles, goals and relevant international regimes, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), will play a pivotal role in ensuring environmental and socio-economic sustainability of charcoal production in tropical forest ecosystems.
Oluwanishola, O (2019). EFFECTS OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION ON TREE DENSITY COVER AND WOOD VOLUME IN YEREGI MALETE KWARA STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved September 28, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-charcoal-production-on-tree-density-cover-and-wood-volume-in-yeregi-malete-kwara-state
Opeyemi, Oluwanishola. "EFFECTS OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION ON TREE DENSITY COVER AND WOOD VOLUME IN YEREGI MALETE KWARA STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Oct. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-charcoal-production-on-tree-density-cover-and-wood-volume-in-yeregi-malete-kwara-state . Accessed 28 Sep. 2020.
Opeyemi, Oluwanishola. "EFFECTS OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION ON TREE DENSITY COVER AND WOOD VOLUME IN YEREGI MALETE KWARA STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Oct. 2019. Web. 28 Sep. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-charcoal-production-on-tree-density-cover-and-wood-volume-in-yeregi-malete-kwara-state >.
Opeyemi, Oluwanishola. "EFFECTS OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION ON TREE DENSITY COVER AND WOOD VOLUME IN YEREGI MALETE KWARA STATE" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed September 28, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-charcoal-production-on-tree-density-cover-and-wood-volume-in-yeregi-malete-kwara-state