Effects of Packaging Material and the Use of Essential Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) on the Proximate Composition of Sardine (Sardinella Maderensis)

Ewelu Bathelomew 37 PAGES (6368 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

The effects of packaging material and the use of essential lemon oil

(Citrus limon) on the proximate composition of sardine (Sardinella maderensis) was studied. The freshly smoked sardine (Sardinella maderensis) were purchased and preserved with lemon(Citrus limon) essential oil (Citrus limon) and was packaged very well, they were divided into four different groups. The first group was preserved with lemon essential oil and was put in the nylon, the second group was also preserved with lemon essential oil but was not put inside the nylon, the third group was not preserved with lemon essential oil but was kept inside the nylon, while the fourth group was neither preserved with lemon essential oil nor kept in the nylon. All samples were all analyzed for proximate composition. The sample which was preserved with the essential lemon oil and a nylon had a stable compositional values. The moisture content ranged from (7.35+0.07) to

(4.40+0.14) and the crude protein also ranged from (42.75+0.35) to (44.55+0.07) while the lipid content also ranged from (8.40+0.14) to (9.50+0.42 ). The study revealed that essential lemon oil (Citrus limon) and nylon will not only reduce the substantial losses in

nutritional content of fish but would also increase satisfaction with the processed fish. It therefore reveled by the study that the essential oil from lemon (Citrus limon) as a preservative has the ability to conserve the nutritional composition of fish


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………….…..…………………………… i

Dedication…………………………………………..………………………..……….ii

Certification………………………………………..…………………..….………. iii

Acknowledgements ………………………………..….………………………iv

Table of contents………………………………….……….………….…….…. v

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………..….vi

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….vii


CHAPTER ONE

1.0Introduction……………………………………………………………………...1

1.1 Composition of Fish…………………………………………...............1

1.2 Sardine………………………………………………………….………….……….1

1.3 Packaging Materials for Smoked Fish………………………….2

1.4 Objectives………………………………………………..…………………….…3


CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review………………………………………………………………4

2.1 History Development of Packaging Materials………………4

2.2 Packaging of Dried Fishery Products……………………..……..5

2.3 Packaging of Fresh Fish…………………………………..…..………...6

2.4 Packaging of Frozen Fishery Products……………….…..……6


CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and Method……………………………………………………………8

3.1 Source of Fish……………………………………………….……………….….……8

3.2 Experimental Site……………………………………………………………….……8

3.3 Collection of Materials…………………………………………………………….8

3.4 Experimental Procedure ……………………………………………..………….8

3.5 Sample Collection for Analysis……………………………………………….9

3.5.0 Moisture Content Determination…………………………………………9

3.5.1 Protein Determination…………………………………………………………..10

3.5.2 Lipid Determination……………………………………………………………….10

3.5.3 Ash Determination…………………………………………………………………11

3.5.4 Crude Fibre Determination…………………………………………………….11

3.5.5 Determination of Nitrogen Free Extract [NFE]………………......12

3.6 Statistical Analysis……………………………………………………………..……..13


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0Result and discussion……………………………………………………………..….14

4.1 Table 1:

Sardinella maderensis

-Nylon- Oil………………………………..14

4.2 Table 2:

Sardimnella maderensis

+ Nylon Oil………………….…...15

4.3 Discussion……………………………………………………………..……........……..…16

4.5 Table 3:

Sardinella maderensis

+Nylon + Oil………………………….…18

4.6 Discussion…………………………………………………………….……..........….…….20


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations…………………….………………………22

5.1 Conclusion.……………………………………………………..……………...........……..23

5.2 Recommendations …………………………………………………………....……......23

References 24



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:

Sardinella maderensis

- nylon- oil……………………………..……………14

Table 2:

Sardinella maderensis

+ nylon oil……………………….………………..15

Table 3:

Sardinella maderensis

+ nylon + oil……………….………………………..18

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APA

Ewelu, B (2019). Effects of Packaging Material and the Use of Essential Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) on the Proximate Composition of Sardine (Sardinella Maderensis). Afribary.com: Retrieved October 17, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-packaging-material-and-the-use-of-essential-lemon-oil-citrus-limon

MLA 8th

Bathelomew, Ewelu. "Effects of Packaging Material and the Use of Essential Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) on the Proximate Composition of Sardine (Sardinella Maderensis)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Oct. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-packaging-material-and-the-use-of-essential-lemon-oil-citrus-limon . Accessed 17 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Bathelomew, Ewelu. "Effects of Packaging Material and the Use of Essential Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) on the Proximate Composition of Sardine (Sardinella Maderensis)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Oct. 2019. Web. 17 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-packaging-material-and-the-use-of-essential-lemon-oil-citrus-limon >.

Chicago

Bathelomew, Ewelu. "Effects of Packaging Material and the Use of Essential Lemon Oil (Citrus limon) on the Proximate Composition of Sardine (Sardinella Maderensis)" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 17, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-packaging-material-and-the-use-of-essential-lemon-oil-citrus-limon