Enforcing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment in Kenya: Is The Law Up to the Task?

Subscribe to access this work and thousands more

CHAPTER I: ........••.............................................................•..........••........................................................................... 9

1:0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 9

THE RJGHT TO A CLEAN. HEALTHY AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................ 9

1:2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ............................................................................................................... II

I :3 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH...................................... ............................................... . .............. 12

I :4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................. 12

I :5 HYPOTHESES ................................................................................................................................................. 13

1:6lv!ETHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................... 13

1:7 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................. 13

I :8 CHAPTER BREAKDOWN ............................................................................................................................. 15

CHAPTER 2: THE RIGHT TO A CLEAN AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT: IN THE

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK. .........••............•.................................•....................................•....... 18

2:0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 18

THE RJGHT TO A CLEAN AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT: IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK ................. 18

2:1 SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW ........................................................................................................ l8

2:1:1 Treaties ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

2: I :2 Custon1S and Practices ............................................................................................................................. 21

2: I :3 General Principles of Law. Judicial Precedent and National Laws ................... ,. .................................... 22

2: I :4 Declarations ............................................................................................................................................ 23

2:2 IMPLEMENTING INTERN A TIONA!. ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS ............................................................................... 26

2:2:1 Standard Setting ......................................................................................................................................... 26

2:2:2 Restrictions and Prohibitions .................................................................................................................... 27

2:2:3 Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A) ............................................................................................. 27

2:2:4 "Polluter Pays·· Principle .......................................................................................................................... 28

2:2:5 iVIonitoring and Surveillance .......................................................................... " ........................................ 28

Laws can provide for monitoring and surveillance procedures. These laws ensure that there is constant

supervision and assessment of the environment thus ensuring there is adequate notice on deterioration of the

environ1nent ....................................................................................................................................................... 28

2:2:6 Public interest Environmental litigation ................................................................................................... 28

This is where the public/ citizens have locus standi to appear in court on environment issues affecting them or

the public at large ............................................................................................................................................... 28

CHAPTER 3: THE RIGHT TO A CLEAN AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT: THE LEGAL AND

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN KENYA •................................................... 31

3:0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... . ............................. 31

3: l STATUTES RELATING TO LAND USE .......................................................................... . . ........... 32

3:2 LEGISLATION GOVERNING WATER RESOURCES .................................................... . .. ............. 34

3:3 HEALTH ISSUES ............................................................................................................................................. 37

3:3:1 Public Health ........................................................................................................... . . .............. 37

3:3:2 V\1orking Environment............................................................................................... . .............. 40

3:3:3 Radiation Control............................................................................................ . ............................ 42

3:3:4 Management of Hazardous Waste................................................................... .. ........... 43

3:4 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION ACT NO.8 OF !999 ................................................... 43

3:4:1 National Environment Council and National Environmental Management Authority., .......... .. . ......... 46

3:4:2 National Environmental Tribunal ............................................................................. .. . ......... 50

3:4:3 Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003 ................ .. . ........... 52

3:4:4 Environment Management and Co-ordination. (Waste Management) Regulations, .. .. ............ 55

2006, Legal ?\otice No. 121 ....................................................... . ................... . ··········55

3:4:5, The Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Fossil Fuel Emission Control) ... . ............. 59

Regulations, 2006. Legal Notice No. 131 ............................... .. ........................ .. ··············59

3:5 CONCLUSION .................................................................... . . ........... 60

CHAPTER 4: IS THE KENYAN LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK UPTO THE TASK? .... 62

4:0 INTRODUCTION.

4: I: J Has Kenya Complied with International Environmental Law requirements?.

4: I :2 Can Kenyans :-\.:cess Environmental Justice?

............... 62

.63

......... 66

6

4:2 THE PROBLEMS FACED BY THE LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL

FRAMEWORK IN KENYA ................................................................................................................................ 70

4:2: I Challenges Facing Implementation of Environmental Laws .................................................................... 70

4:2:2 Challenges facing Public Interest Environmental Litigation .................................................................... 72

There are various approaches that Kenya law-makers could take to help overcome the challenges and also

achieve the right to a clean, healthy and safe environment.. .............................................................................. 79

4:3: I Encourage Eco-labelling ......................................................................................................................... 79

4:3:2 Ban the use of plastic bags ........................................................................................................................ 79

4:3:3 Green Campaigns ..................................................................................................................................... 82

Companies and also individuals should take advantage of renewable technologies by purchasing or investing

in renewable energy technologies (wind, solar. biomass, small hydropower, and geothennal) which can reduce

greenhouse gas emissions and provide job opportunities for individuals entering this growing field ............... 82

CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDED REFORMS AND CONCLUSION ................................................................. 86

5:0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ . .................................... 86

5:1 RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 87

CHAPTER 1: 1:0 INTRODUCTION The Right to a Clean, Healthy and Safe Environment In principle, a right specifies something, which an individual should be free to have or do. A right is an entitlement, something one possesses freely and clearly, something one can exercise without asking anyone else's permission. Because it is an entitlement, not a privilege or favor, one does not owe anyone else any gratitude for their recognition of your rights. Traditional civil rights are primarily protective. They guarantee a citizen's certain basic freedoms and immunities, and protect them against intrusion or arbitrary action by the state. These traditional rights are not conferred on citizen by the state rather the people hold these rights prior to and independently of the state, which is merely enjoined to respect them and assume their free exercise. However the state is also expected to take positive measures to protect these rights. 1 The right to a clean, healthy and safe environment is both a human right and an environmental right. As a human right, it is classified as a 3'd generation right2 Human rights can only be enjoyed in an environment that is not degraded. For example the right to life is enjoyed if one is I iving in an environment of a particular quality.

Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Save
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

Frontiers, E. & JACK, M (2022). Enforcing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment in Kenya: Is The Law Up to the Task?. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/enforcing-the-right-to-a-clean-and-healthy-environment-in-kenya-is-the-law-up-to-the-task

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and MW JACK "Enforcing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment in Kenya: Is The Law Up to the Task?" Afribary. Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/enforcing-the-right-to-a-clean-and-healthy-environment-in-kenya-is-the-law-up-to-the-task. Accessed 24 Sep. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and MW JACK . "Enforcing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment in Kenya: Is The Law Up to the Task?". Afribary, Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022. Web. 24 Sep. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/enforcing-the-right-to-a-clean-and-healthy-environment-in-kenya-is-the-law-up-to-the-task >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and JACK, MW . "Enforcing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment in Kenya: Is The Law Up to the Task?" Afribary (2022). Accessed September 24, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/enforcing-the-right-to-a-clean-and-healthy-environment-in-kenya-is-the-law-up-to-the-task