Examination of the Impact of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 on the Protection of Civilians in North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

ABSTRACT 

The United Nations Security Council has taken several measures to stabilise the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1960. Facing so many security issues and civilians’ human rights violations, in 2013 the Resolution 2098 created the Intervention Brigade with the mandate of using all necessary measures to protect civilians. This study intended to examine the impact of the UNSC Resolution 2098(2013) on protection of civilians in North-Kivu, DRC, with the following specific objectives: To examine the effectiveness of the 2098 Resolution on peacekeeping in DRC with respect to the protection of civilians and the neutralisation of rebel group; to determine measures taken by the brigade to ensure, within its area of operations, effective protection of civilians under imminent threat of physical violence; to assess how the brigade mitigates the risk to civilians before, during and after any military operation; to identify challenges faced by UN peacekeepers in carrying out the Resolution 2098. This study is social-legal as its used both doctrinal and non-doctrinal methods to address the objectives. The qualitative approach was applied to access findings and key respondents were purposively selected within members of the community of Rutshuru in North Kivu, DRC. The major tools used were Interviews and document analysis. The researcher noticed that the lack of the Interventions Brigade promptness and completeness has the outcomes on civilian attacks and human rights violation by rebel groups. Thus, the intervention Brigade delay in time did not mitigate the risk of civilian attacks, kidnapping and other human rights violation as provided by the 2098 Resolution; The unclear definition mandate of the Brigade and the inexistence of specifics mechanism of civilian protection lead to the ineffectiveness of the Resolution and the mistrust of the mission by the population. Since there is no need of adopting Resolutions which, at the end of the day, will not sort out the conflict and restore peace and security in the country or region concerned, for the further effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council resolution, the mandate should be clearly defined and provide for measures of its implementation. As the implementation tool of the UNSC 2098 Resolution, the Brigade must follow the guidelines provided by the UNSC on civilian protection task. Moreover, the DRC collaboration with the Brigade is most welcomed to ensure the effectiveness of Resolution 2098.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ........................................................................................................................i

APPROVAL .............................................................................................................................. ii

DEDICATION...........................................................................................................................iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................ iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................... v

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................... x

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................... xi

LIST OF STATUTES ...............................................................................................................xii

The Hague Convention III of 1907 ...........................................................................................xii

The Covenant of the League of Nations of 1919 ......................................................................xii

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS.......................................................................................................xiii

TABLE OF CASES ................................................................................................................xiv

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................. xv

CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1

1.1 Background to the study...................................................................................................1

1.2 Statement of the Problem.................................................................................................5

1.3 Objectives of the Study ....................................................................................................6

1.3.2 Specific Objectives........................................................................................................6

1.4 Research questions...........................................................................................................7

1.5 Scope of the study ............................................................................................................7

1.6 Significance of the study..................................................................................................8

1.7 Research Methodology.....................................................................................................9

1.7.1 Population and Sample Population ...............................................................................9

1.7.2 Sampling and Sampling Techniques............................

1.7.3 Data collection instruments.........................................................................................10

1.7.4 Data analysis plan........................................................................................................10

1.7.5 Ethical considerations .................................................................................................10

1.8 Literature Review...........................................................................................................11

1.10 Organisational Layout..................................................................................................17

CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................19

FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL ........................19

2.1 United Security Council (UNSC) Creation....................................................................20

2.2 The United Nations Security Council members.............................................................21

2.3.1 The UNSC and powers for the pacific settlement of dispute ......................................24

2.3.2 The United Nations Security Council under the UN Charter Chapter VII .................28

2.3.3 United Nations Security Council under Chapter VIII.................................................32

2.3.4 Limitations on the United Nations Security Council powers......................................35

CHAPTER THREE...............................................................................................................38

UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO..............................................38

3.1 Understanding the United Nations Peacekeeping and peace-making operations..........38

3.2 Principles of Peacekeeping missions..............................................................................40

3.3 Status of force and mandate of the UN Peacekeeping missions in DRC .......................43

3.4 The role of the UN Peacekeeping mission in the DRC Crisis .......................................46

3.4.1. ONUC.........................................................................................................................46

3.4.2. MONUC.....................................................................................................................47

3.4.3. The United Nations Stabilisation Mission in the Congo (MONUSCO)....................48

3.5 The UN Missions Challenges in DRC ...........................................................................50

3.5.1 Internal Challenges......................................................................................................50

3.5.2 External challenges .....................................................................................................52

CHAPTER FOUR..................................................................................................................55

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE UNSC RESOLUTION 2098 ON CIVILIANS’ PROTECTION IN NORTH KIVU................................55

4.1 The 2098 Resolution effectiveness on peacekeeping in DRC with respect to civilian protection in North Kivu ............................................55

4.1.1 The Resolution 2098 context and opportunity ...............56

4.1.2 Mandate implementation.............................................................................................57

4.1.2 A. The mandate comprehension..................................................................................58

4.1.2.B. The respect of the mandate .....................................................................................60

4.1.2.C. The Brigade outcome from March 2013 up to March 2018...................................61

4.2 Measures taken by the Brigade to ensure effective protection of civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.................................63

4.2.1 Existence of civilian protection mechanisms..............................................................63

4.2.2 Responses to rebel groups attacks...............................................................................64

4.3 The brigade attacks risk mitigation to civilians before, during and after any military operation.......................................66

4.3.1 The Brigade base location...........................................................................................66

4.3.2 The interventions time and its implications ................................................................67

4.4 Factors impeding the Resolution implementation and to a new mechanism of protection ....................................68

4.4.1 The Brigade collaboration with DRC army forces (FARDC) in the implementation of the Resolution 2098.............................................68

4.4.2 Towards a new mechanism of civilians’ protection in North-Kivu, Rutshuru ...........71

CHAPTER FIVE ...................................................................................................................73

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................73

5.1 Conclusion......................................................................................................................73

5.2 Recommendations..........................................................................................................75

5.2.1 To the United Nations Security Council .....................................................................75

5.2.2 To the Brigade .............................................................................................................75

5.2.3 To the Democratic Republic of the Congo..................................................................76

REFERENCES.............................................................................

Books....................................................................................................................................77

Articles..................................................................................

Reports .................................................................................................................................83

APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................87

Appendix I: An Interview Schedule for Military Officers, Police Officers and Monusco

Personnel in Eastern Congo, DRC .......................................................................................87

Appendix II: An Interview Schedule for Chiefs Of Rutshuru Localities And Villages ......88

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APA

Consults, E. & FELICITE, M (2022). Examination of the Impact of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 on the Protection of Civilians in North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/examination-of-the-impact-of-the-united-nations-security-council-resolution-2098-on-the-protection-of-civilians-in-north-kivu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and MUGOMBOZI FELICITE "Examination of the Impact of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 on the Protection of Civilians in North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo" Afribary. Afribary, 25 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/examination-of-the-impact-of-the-united-nations-security-council-resolution-2098-on-the-protection-of-civilians-in-north-kivu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo. Accessed 15 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and MUGOMBOZI FELICITE . "Examination of the Impact of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 on the Protection of Civilians in North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo". Afribary, Afribary, 25 Nov. 2022. Web. 15 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/examination-of-the-impact-of-the-united-nations-security-council-resolution-2098-on-the-protection-of-civilians-in-north-kivu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and FELICITE, MUGOMBOZI . "Examination of the Impact of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 on the Protection of Civilians in North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 15, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/examination-of-the-impact-of-the-united-nations-security-council-resolution-2098-on-the-protection-of-civilians-in-north-kivu-democratic-republic-of-the-congo