Examining Environmental Impact Assessment as A Mode of Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ..................................................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL ........................................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION ....................................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... iv

LIST OF ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................... v

LIST OF ACTS AND STATUTES ......................................................................................................... vi

TABLE OF STATUTES ........................................................................................................................ vi

STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................ vi

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................... xi

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 1

I .0. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1. Background to the Study ................................................................................................................... 3

1.2. Problem statement ............................................................................................................................ 8

1.3 Purpose of the study .......................................................................................................................... 9

1.4. Objectives of the study ...................................................................................................................... 9

I .5. Research questions ......................................................................................................................... 10

1.6 Scope of the study ........................................................................................................................... 10

1.6.1. Content Scope .............................................................................................................................. 10

1.6.1 Geographical scope ....................................................................................................................... ll

1.6.2 Time scope ................................................................................................................................... 11

1.6. Significance of the study ................................................................................................................. 11

1.7. Methodology .................................................................................................................................. 12

1.8. Arrangement of chapters ................................................................................................................. 13

1.9. Literature review ............................................................................................................................ 13

1.10 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 15

CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................. 16

THE PROCESS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ............................................ 16

IN UGANDA ........................................................................................................................................ 16

2.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 16

2.1 Statutory law ................................................................................................................................... 16

2.2 The Environment Act ...................................................................................................................... 16

2.2.1 Environmental Impact Assessment. ............................................................................................... 16

2.2.2 Environmental Rights ................................................................................................................... 17

viii

2.2.3 Environmental audit ...................................................................................................................... 17

2.3 The Constitution ofthe Republic of Uganda 1995 ............................................................................ 18

2.3.1 National objectives and directives of state policy (NODPSP) ........................................................ 18

2.4 The National environment ACT (2019) ............................................................................................ 19

2.5. The EIA Process ............................................................................................................................. 21

2.5.1 Project Brief ................................................................................................................................. 21

2.5.2 Screening ...................................................................................................................................... 22

2.5.3 The Environmental Impact Study ................................................................................................. 22

2.5.4 Decision-Making .......................................................................................................................... 23

2.5.5 Monitoring and Auditing ............................................................................................................... 24

2.6 Other Legislations ........................................................................................................................... 24

2.7. Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 26

CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................... 27

EFFICIENCY OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON CONTROLLING POLLUTION IN UGANDA ... 27

3.0. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 27

3.1. Statutory law .................................................................................................................................. 27

3.2. Legal framework for pollution control in Uganda ............................................................................ 28

3.3. Pollution Control under the New Laws ............................................................................................ 31

3 .4. Legal framework in relationship to environment protection ............................................................. 34

3.4.1. International legal framework ...................................................................................................... 34

3.4.2. National Legal Framework in Uganda .......................................................................................... 36

3.5. Efficiency of the Legal Framework on Controlling Pollution in Uganda .......................................... 36

3.5.1. Action against pollution on wetlands ............................................................................................ 36

3.5.2. Environmental Impact Assessment ............................................................................................... 36

3.5.3. Public Interest Litigation .............................................................................................................. 37

3.5.4. Inadequate or nonexistent laws in certain areas ............................................................................ 37

3.5.5. Poverty and wetland resources use relationship ............................................................................ 39

3.5.6. Cases of Private Remedies on Nuisance ....................................................................................... 39

3.6. The National Environment Act .............................................. , ........................................................ 40

3.7. Environmental Inspection ............................................................................................................... 41

3.7.1. Forests ......................................................................................................................................... 42

3 .8. Environmental monitoring .............................................................................................................. 44

CHAPTER FOUR ................................................................................................................................. 45

ix

COSTS AND CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTING PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE APPLICATION

.............................................................................................................................................................. 45

4.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 45

4. I Challenges in monitoring and enforcement ...................................................................................... 45

4.I.I Issuance of Land Title in wetland areas by the Central and Local Governments ............................. 45

4.1.2 The "anonymous", "holiday" and "awkward hour" dumping syndrome ......................................... 46

4. 1.3 How to transfer management and enforcement responsibility to local authorities and to resource

users' level. ........................................................................................................................................... 46

4.I.4 Need to harmonize urban planning and land-use in general with modern wetland conservation

goals ...................................................................................................................................................... 47

4. 1.5 Poverty and environmental resources use relationship ................................................................... 4 7

4. 1.6Inadequate awareness of rights to clean and healthy environment .................................................. 47

4.1.7 The formulation of the right to a clean and healthy environment.. .................................................. 48

4. 1.8 Problems in enforcing environmental law and ensuring environmental rights for legal aid

beneficiaries .......................................................................................................................................... 48

4. I . 9 Violations of Environmental Law ................................................................................................. 49

4.1.I 0 Policy Framework ....................................................................................................................... 49

4.l.Il Overlapping Functions between Environmental and Planning Agencies ...................................... 50

4.I.12 Lack of Resources ....................................................................................................................... 50

4.I.13. Other challenges that are encountered while enhancing the rights to clean and healthy environment

...................................................................................................................... , ....................................... 50

4.2 Suggestions to improve implementation and Enforcement of clean and healthy environmental rights 52

4.3 Cone! us ion ...................................................................................................................................... 53

CHAPTER FIVE ................................................................................................................................... 54

FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................ 54

5.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 54

5.I Findings .......................................................................................................................................... 54

5.2. Cone! us ion ..................................................................................................................................... 54

5.3. Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 56

5 .3 .I . Access to government information ............................................................................................... 56

5.3.2. Generating and disseminating information ................................................................................... 58

5 .3 .3. Government capacity ................................................................................................................... 60

BOOKS ................................................................................................................................................. 62

ARTICLES ........................................................................................................................................... 65

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ...................................................................................................... 66

ABSTRACT Recognizing the need for environmental protection, environmental management and control mechanisms have been evolving over time in various countries. Among which are the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and precautionary principle that also incorporate the social and cultural aspect. Uganda is faced with the dilemma of developing the resource whilst protecting the environment due to various mineral discoveries and the many economic activities; more so those related to agriculture, development and industrialization. This paper therefore examines the Environmental Impact Assessment as a mode of implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda basing on the legal and institutional framework, public participation and quality of the EIAs and implementation. It concludes that Uganda has not fully practicing the EIAs and this has created room for various individuals to exploit the loopholes identified to their advantage. Nonetheless it is possible to improve on the EIA system if National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) realizes the power it has through its legal mandate and also continues engagement of the public.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & WA, N (2022). Examining Environmental Impact Assessment as A Mode of Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/examining-environmental-impact-assessment-as-a-mode-of-implementing-the-precautionary-principle-in-uganda

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and NABUUMA WA "Examining Environmental Impact Assessment as A Mode of Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda" Afribary. Afribary, 05 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/examining-environmental-impact-assessment-as-a-mode-of-implementing-the-precautionary-principle-in-uganda. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and NABUUMA WA . "Examining Environmental Impact Assessment as A Mode of Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Aug. 2022. Web. 12 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/examining-environmental-impact-assessment-as-a-mode-of-implementing-the-precautionary-principle-in-uganda >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and WA, NABUUMA . "Examining Environmental Impact Assessment as A Mode of Implementing the Precautionary Principle in Uganda" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 12, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/examining-environmental-impact-assessment-as-a-mode-of-implementing-the-precautionary-principle-in-uganda