EXPLORATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF CITRUS MAXIMA (SHADDOCK) LEAF ON RAT.

ABSTRACT
Citrus maxima (shaddock) is a medicinal plant used in Asia, and in some parts of Africa, because they are rich in flavonoids and some other phytoconstituent which contributed to their wide range of biological activities ranging from anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity and anti tumor activity. Inflammation is the biochemical and cellular response that occurs in all vascularized tissues whose health is threatened either by internal or external source such as pathogens, damaged cells or irritants. Inflammation is a major public health problem in the world but the treatment is becoming complex due to the side effect of anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical drugs. This research work investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract of the leaves of citrus maxima (shaddock) in egg-albumin induced rat paw edema. Anti-inflammatory was carried out using twelve (12) rats that were divided into four groups of three rats each in a group. Group 1 and 4 were served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 2 and 3 received 200mg/kg and 500mg/kg of the extract respectively. However it was discovered that the leaves of citrus maxima showed moderate significant of anti-inflammatory activity more than the standard drug used (ibuprofen).




TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page_______________________________________    i
Certification page_________________________________ii
Dedication_______________________________________ iii
Acknowledgement ________________________________ iv
Table of content __________________________________ v
Abstract _________________________________________vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    Introduction _________________________________ 1
1.1 Background of the study________________________   1   
1.2 Aims and Objectives____________________________       4   
1.3 Significance of the study__________________________4
1.4 Statement of problems____________________________5
1.5 Limitations____________________________________ 5
Chapter two
2.0 Literature review________________________________6
2.1 Definition of inflammation________________________6
2.2 Principle of inflammation_________________________7
2.3 Types of inflammation____________________________8
2.4 Acute inflammation______________________________9
2.5 Events in acute inflammation______________________9
2.6 Increased blood flow and edema___________________10
2.7 Stimuli for acute inflammation___________________ 11
2.8 Features of acute inflammation____________________12
2.9 Cellular events in acute inflammation_______________13
2.10 Leukocyte extravasations________________________14
2.11 Leukocyte action at the site of inflammation_________15
2.12 Cellular components of inflammation________________17
2.13 Phagocytosis____________________________________18
2.14 Steps in phagocytosis_____________________________18
2.15 Systemic manifestation of acute inflammation_________21
2.16 Chronic inflammation_____________________________23
2.17 Stimuli for chronic inflammation____________________23
2.18 Morphological features of chronic inflammation________24
2.19 Chemical mediators of inflammation ________________26
2.20 Histamine______________________________________ 27
2.21 Serotonin_______________________________________28
2.22 Cytokines______________________________________28
2.23 Chemokines ___________________________________ 29
2.24 Arachidonic acid_________________________________30
2.25 Prostanoid______________________________________30
2.26 Isoprostanoid___________________________________31
2.27 Arachidonic acid metabolism_______________________32
2.28 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Nsaid)_________33
2.29 Groups of NSAID________________________________33
2.30 Mode of action of NSAID_________________________34
2.31 Other facts about NSAID__________________________34
2.32 The enzyme cyclooxygenase_______________________35
2.33 Inflammation and diseases_________________________36
2.34 Arthritis________________________________________36
2.35 Osteoarthritis ___________________________________37
2.36 Gout__________________________________________38
2.37 Rheumatoid arthritis_____________________________38
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods_____________________________40
3.1 Equipment/apparatus______________________________40
3.2 Chemicals, solvent and reagents_____________________ 41
3.3 Animals________________________________________41
3.4 Methodology____________________________________44
3.5 Collection and preparation_________________________44
3.6 Extraction______________________________________45
3.7 Identification of phytochemical_____________________46
3.8 Phytochemical chemical identification of the extract____ 46
3.8.1 Test for alkaloid________________________________46
3.8.2 Test for terpenoids______________________________ 47
3.8.3 Test anthraquinone ______________________________47
3.8.4 Test for glycoside_______________________________ 48
3.8.5 Test for flavonoids______________________________ 48
3.8.6 Test for tannins_________________________________ 48 
3.8.7 Test for carbohydrates___________________________ 49
3.8.8 Test for reducing sugar___________________________ 49
3.8.9 Test for monosaccharide__________________________50
3.8.10 Test for protein________________________________51



CHAPTER FOUR
4.0      RESULTS
4.1 Percentage extractive yield of methanol extract of citrus    maxima leaves__________________________________54
4.2 Percentage inhibition of egg-albumin induced acute inflammation of rat paw. __________________________55
4.3 Effect of methanol extract on acute inflammation
      of rat paw______________________________________55
4.4 Phytochemical constitute of methanol extract of citrus maxima leaf (shaddock)___________________________ 56
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion, conclusion and recommendation___________57
5.1 Discussion______________________________________57
5.2 Recommendation________________________________59
     References____________________________________61






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APA

Gerald, I. (2018). EXPLORATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF CITRUS MAXIMA (SHADDOCK) LEAF ON RAT.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/exploration-of-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-citrus-maxima-shaddock-leaf-on-rat-9738

MLA 8th

Gerald, IKenna "EXPLORATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF CITRUS MAXIMA (SHADDOCK) LEAF ON RAT." Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/exploration-of-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-citrus-maxima-shaddock-leaf-on-rat-9738. Accessed 18 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

Gerald, IKenna . "EXPLORATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF CITRUS MAXIMA (SHADDOCK) LEAF ON RAT.". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 18 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/exploration-of-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-citrus-maxima-shaddock-leaf-on-rat-9738 >.

Chicago

Gerald, IKenna . "EXPLORATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF CITRUS MAXIMA (SHADDOCK) LEAF ON RAT." Afribary (2018). Accessed July 18, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/exploration-of-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-citrus-maxima-shaddock-leaf-on-rat-9738