The purpose of the study was to find out factors affecting management of maladjusted behaviours (MB) for behaviour adjustment in learners with Intellectual challenge (IC) in special units in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study was guided by the theory of Operant Conditioning of B.F Skinner (1938). The objectives of the study were to: identify learner factors affecting the management of MB in learners with IC, Inquire parental factors affecting the management of MB in learners with IC, Investigate teacher factors limiting the management of MB in learners with IC, Determine school internal factors hindering management of MB in learners with IC and to Establish intervention measures for behaviour adjustment in learners with IC in special units. The study used systematic random sampling to select 7 schools with special units and 8 teachers from the 7 special units. Stratified random sampling was used to select learners from the units. Headteachers of the 7 schools with special units were purposively selected. The target population comprised 235 individuals; composed of school heads, teachers in charge of the units and learners in the units. The sample population for the study was 8 teachers of the 7 units, 7 head teachers of the schools with the units and 62 learners of the sampled units, a total of 77 respondents. This formed 32.8% of the target population. Four Research instruments were used: A questionnaire for sampled teachers in the units, Interview guide for head teachers, behaviour observation checklist for the teachers in the unit and observations schedule for the researcher. Validity and reliability of the instrument were checked through piloting. Collected data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The open-ended items were analyzed qualitatively while closed-ended items were analyzed quantitatively and tabulated by application of statistics package for social sciences (SPSS). From the observation checklist which was thematically analyzed, tearing of books was common in most special units with a higher frequency of 7 (87.5%) followed by throwing objects to others in class and banging head on the wall which had equal frequencies of 6 (75%). The study observed that the main contributing factors of MB in learners with IC were delayed developmental milestone in learners, parental negligence, lack of proper training among teachers and inadequate facilities. All teachers (100%) had done inclusive special education hence did not have special skills to manage MB among learners with IC. The intervention strategies employed by teachers towards managing MB among learners with IC include time out 6 (75%), extinction 5 (62.5%), contingency contracting 4 (50%), token economy 3 (37.5%) and response cost 2 (25%). The study concludes that strategies ought to be established upon early intervention which would effectively enable both teachers and parents identify learners possessing MB and positively change their behaviours. The study recommends that teachers should seek assistance from the special education assessment centers to ascertain the behaviour. It also recommended that the causes of MB should be investigated closely and be addressed, observed closely so that the learners can have the opportunity to learn without any triggers of the behavior. Teachers should go for in-service courses to acquire knowledge on how to identify the behaviour and causes of the behaviour and how to manage MB among learners with IC.
WAINAINA, M (2021). Factors Affecting Management Of Maladjusted Behaviours In Behaviour Adjustment For Learners With Intellectual Challenge In Special Units, Kiambu County, Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/factors-affecting-management-of-maladjusted-behaviours-in-behaviour-adjustment-for-learners-with-intellectual-challenge-in-special-units-kiambu-county-kenya
WAINAINA, MILKAH "Factors Affecting Management Of Maladjusted Behaviours In Behaviour Adjustment For Learners With Intellectual Challenge In Special Units, Kiambu County, Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 01 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/factors-affecting-management-of-maladjusted-behaviours-in-behaviour-adjustment-for-learners-with-intellectual-challenge-in-special-units-kiambu-county-kenya. Accessed 30 Mar. 2023.
WAINAINA, MILKAH . "Factors Affecting Management Of Maladjusted Behaviours In Behaviour Adjustment For Learners With Intellectual Challenge In Special Units, Kiambu County, Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 01 Jun. 2021. Web. 30 Mar. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/factors-affecting-management-of-maladjusted-behaviours-in-behaviour-adjustment-for-learners-with-intellectual-challenge-in-special-units-kiambu-county-kenya >.
WAINAINA, MILKAH . "Factors Affecting Management Of Maladjusted Behaviours In Behaviour Adjustment For Learners With Intellectual Challenge In Special Units, Kiambu County, Kenya" Afribary (2021). Accessed March 30, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/factors-affecting-management-of-maladjusted-behaviours-in-behaviour-adjustment-for-learners-with-intellectual-challenge-in-special-units-kiambu-county-kenya