Feminism as a concept gained approval the help of some male feminist writers who write for the sake of women liberation but this concept has its limitations. Feminist aesthetics thereby came into full realization in the work of some female writers who actually wants other women’s value.
This work has attempted explore feminists aesthetics in the works of Femi Osofisan and Ola Rotimi.
The sociological critical method was adopted for this work. Thus, the texts have been analysed in relation to the social and cultural contexts from which they emanated.
Some of the key findings of the research are:
That feminist theory has become a popular area of study in the literary field and has grown through rigorous research works.
That works of feminist orientation are strongly in their challenge of social and cultural contradictions.
That the feminists writes provide reading materials that are capable of changing the negative views about the female gender.
That these feminist texts provide the instructions to convert female readers to writers thereby increasing the generation oif female writers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contentvi
Forms of Feminism14
Women and Their Social Struggle in Morountodun25
Madness as a Metaphor for Patriarchy in Our Husband
Has Gone Mad Again37
Patriarchy and Madness42
Feminism as a literary theory is an ideology which tends towards female Liberace in the society. (Joseph 2003:99) describes feminism as an ideology of social commitment to the struggle for female libration in the society through conscious and collective effort.
Feminism Raji (1999:228) says feminism a concerns itself with contemporary agitation by women for social economics, political and cultural equality with male counterparts”. Most feminists are especially concerned with social, political and economic inequality between men and women.
First inaugurated in the sixties, feminist criticism proceeds from the assumption that “the history of all the societies is the history patriarch of male domination and exploitation of women, a situation which women clam has hundred the actualization of women’s possibilities aid potentials in all fields of human endeavour. Just as feminism clamed in murices, feminists behaves that literature represents a very strong infrastructural support of this patriarchal ideology Abram (1998;209) says:
Typically, the most highly regarded literary works on male protagonist to these, the female characters when they play a role are marginal end subordinate…………….and implicitly addressed to male readers either leave the women reader as an alien outsider or else solicit her to identify….and ways of perceiving.
Feminism like Marxism is concerned about societal inequalities. It is also a literary ideology founded on the need to develop a female tradition of creativity to cause awareness on the high of women as the oppressed, deprived, subjugated and unfulfilled gender. It is directed against patriarchal hegemony which according to Josephy (2003) “gives men confidence, subordination the female to male or treats the female as an inferior being:
Marxism recognizes that women are oppressed, and attributes the oppresses to the capitalist/private property system. Thus, it insists that the only way to end the oppression of women is to overthrow the capitalism system (Christian, 1985). Marxism and feminism as schools of thought are different but they have a meeting point while Marxism deals with class stratification between the wealthy and the poor, feminism discussion gender discrimination between the oppressing male and oppressed female. The bottom line is that they are both fighting for the same cause which is liberation of the people from oppression, exploitation and domination.
Feminism as an ideology later, pined a fertile ground in Africa in the 1960’s Obioma Nnaemeka (995) establishes the fundamental purpose of the discussion when she assets that:
Fermium provides the opportunity of evaluating attitudes and misconception about women which have buttressed all along both by African culture and the misogynous tradition of European colonial masters.
Where are varieties of African feminism feminist writers like Acholonu behave that women should not be seen as objects to decorate the homes but they should be regarded as major contributors to the destiny of the nation without really affecting the roles as mothers and wives at home in her article titled “Buchi Emecheta” (1988) acholonu says:
Women should no longer be decorative accessories, objects to be moved about, and companions to be flattered or claimed with promises. They should see themselves as nation’s primary fundamental roots, from which all else grows and blossoms. Women must be encouraged to takes a keen interest in the destiny of the country.
African feminist writers can be grouped in for the liberal and the radical Encydopeadia of feminist theory says liberal feminism “advocates equal rights for women”. The writers are gradient in their approaches to women emancipation as they portray the ability of their rural women of be at par with man in farming. Writers in these categories include flora Nwapa, Zaynab Alkali and the base most of their early works on rural protagonists who are created to realize their fund potentials as human beings and to contribute the special demine quota to the general improvement of the society.
The radical feminist writer on the other hand approaches women’s literature from materialist perspective. It is an approach to feminist thinking and action which maintains that the sex gender system is the fundamental cause of women’s oppression. Writer in the category include Molara Ogundipa Leslie, Mariam Ba and Animata sowfall.
Radical and liberal as types of African feminism are different in their approach to writings. Radical feminists are harsh, militant and most forceful form of feminism. Radicalists believers that women are oppressed as a result of her sex/gender while liberal are slow and lenient in their writings in the sense that, they advocates equal rights for men.
The rebel against anything that subjugates or relegates women to the background. The radicalists relegated women to the background. The radicalists and the liberalists advocates joint efforts across gender in solving human problems, aid in developing a solid society, again, they behave in education as a weapon that women need to challenge patriarchy.
On the whole the bottom line is that they are both fighting for the same cause which is the liberation of self expression, self fulfillment in a world that is male dominated. Talking about Zaynab Alkali’s the stubborn from the liberal perspective. Alkali compasses women’s need for economic independence but also the need for women to work with men to build a new society. Zaynab concerns in her works the plight of the rural woman, whose effort to satisfy the man is trivialized. The novel encloses and records the heartaches and disappointment of the women in the society the presents the values of virtue and self determination for self construction of women in a patriarchal society. She endows with trampy through her tough and indomitable determination. She becomes truly liberated from humiliation, betrayal, oppression and brutalization in the hands of Habu Adams. Li finds education as the key to her freedom from male subjugation and dehumanization and therefore puts the past behind and focuses on the future. Zaynab builds a vision of a better’s life based on economic independence, self sacrifice and solidarity between men and women. Also, we shall consider Marian Ba’s so long a letters from the radical perspective. Ba’s works treat issues of conflicts for survival in an oppressive society and freedom from subjugation. An example of this is Aissaton in so long letter who struggled to survive in African patriarchal society. Marian uses education as a weapon needed for the challenges of self determination. She creates two females friends Aissatou and Ramatoulaye who face matrimonial disappointments with their respective polygamous husbands. Aissation gets imbued with the near spirit of liberation gained through her education and intellect and refuses to accept any self made destroy to oppress her.
Women are portrayed in this novel in different guises of check patriarchy. They are portrayed as friend’s enemies within to expose the effects of patriarchy on them and to put a cheek on it.
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