Future SCADA System for Smart Grid

Michael Okika 25 PAGES (8196 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

Traditional power grids are now transformed into Smart Grids (SGs) in order to solve the problems of energy wastage, energy control, uni-directional flow of information, growing energy demand, reliability, measurement and security. Smart grids increase the automation, coordination and connectivity between these electricity suppliers, electricity users and networks used in local distribution tasks and long distance transmission. Smart Grids offer bi-directional energy flow between electricity service providers and electricity consumers which involve power generation, transmission, distribution and utilization systems. Smart Grids utilize various devices to monitor, analyze and control the grid. These devices are deployed in great numbers all over the distribution centers, consumers’ premises and in power plants. Therefore, Smart Grid requires connectivity, automation and the tracking of such devices. SCADA connection to the Internet is advantageous in terms of generation, data viewing and control. SCADA infrastructures such as electricity could also be incorporated in Smart Grids. Adopting advanced, cloud computing technology and smart technologies in SCADA of distribution system for smart monitoring, smart metering, distributed system automation and optimization, power system control, distributed intelligence, data decentralization, data sharing and forwarding, flexible communication architecture, distributed generation and storage, extensibility and interoperability. This project report focuses on future SCADA for smart grid and decentralized distribution system and literature review on smart grids.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION………………….................................................................................................5

2. SMART GRID ENVIRONMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………..6

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………….……………………………………………………………...6

2.1.1 SMART GRID VISION……………………………………………………………………………………………........... 7

2.1.2 SMART GRID ROAD MAPS FOR ELECTRICITY UTILITY COMPANIES……………………………………7

2.1.3 SMART GRID PLANE OF DOMAINS AND HIERARCHICAL ZONES……………………….………………9

2.2 PERFORMANCE-BASED FUNCTIONALITIES OF SMART GRIDS……………………………………........9

2.2.1. SELF-HEALING FROM DISTURBANCES AND RESILIENCY AGAINST ATTACKS………………........9

2.2.2. HEIGHTENED POWER QUALITY AND RELIABILITY……………………………………………………….......9

2.2.3 CUSTOMER PARTICIPATION ………………………………………………………………………………..…….......9

2.2.4 INTEGRATION OF ALL GENERATION AND STORAGE OPTIONS …….…………………………...……..9

2.2.5 ASSET OPTIMIZATION AND OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY…………………………………………………….9

2.2.6 NEW MARKETS, MARKET ENPOWERMENT AND OPERATIONS…………………………………………10

2.3 SMART GRID FEATURES AND COMPONENTS……………………………………………………………………10

2.3.1 DECENTRALIZATION OF POWER GENERATION…………………………………………………………………10

2.3.2 LOAD ADJUSTMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………10

2.3.3 PRICE SIGNALING TO ELECRICITY CONSUMERS………………………………………………………………..10

2.3.4 GREATER RESILIENCE TO LOADING…………………………………………………………………………………..10

2.3.5 DEMAND RESPONSE SUPPORT………………………………………………………………………………………...10

2.4 ADVANCED METERING INFRASTRUCTURE (AMI) TECHNOLOGY………………………………………..11

2.4.1 SMART METERING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………12

2.4.2 ELECTRIC VEHICLE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12

2.4.3 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION……………………………………………………………………………………………..13

2.5 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE COMPONENTS……………………………………………..14

2.5.1 COMMUNICATION MEDIUM……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

2.5.2 AUTOMATED BREAKERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………….14

2.5.3 INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICES (IEDS)………………………………………………………………………… 14

2.6 DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION (DA)…………………………………………………………………………… ……… 14

2.6.1 AUTOMATED CAPACITORS…………………………………………………………………………………………………14

2.6.2 AUTOMATED RECLOSERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………..15

2.6.3 AUTOMATED SECTIONALIZING…………………………………………………………………………………………..15

2.6.4 LINE SENSORS AND POWER QUALITY MONIORING…………………………………………………………….15

2.7. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SMART GRID……………………………………………………………………………..16

2.8 SMART GRID SUBSYSTEMS………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

2.9. THE ROLE OF SMART GRIDS IN THE OVERALL ELECTRICITY SECTOR…………………………………….17

2.9.1 NECESSITY OF SMART AND INTELLIGENT SCADA………………………………………………………………..17

3 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMART GRID……………………………………………………….19

3.1 NEIGHBOR AREA NETWORKS (NANs)………………………………………………………………………………….19

3.2 HOME AREA NETWORKS (HANs)…………………………………………………………………………………………19

3.3 WIDE AREA NETWORKS (WANs)………………………………………………………………………………………….19

4. FUTURE SCADA SYSTEMS FOR DECENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS……………………………20

4.1 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION……………………………………………………………………………………………..….20

4.2 SMART SCADA SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION…………………………………………………….20

4.3 SCADA/SMART GRID INTEGRATION…………………………………………………………………………………….21

5. PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………….22

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6. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………24

7. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..25

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 SMART GRID……………………………………………………………………………………………………….6

FIGURE 2 SMART GRID VISION AND PILLARS………………………………………………………………………7

FIGURE 3 SMART GRID ROAD MAP…………………………………………………………………………………….8

FIGURE 4 FUTURE DISTRIBUTION GRID FOR AMI……………………………………………………………….12

FIGURE 5 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION SELF-HEALING WITH MULTIPLE SUBSTATIONS……….13

FIGURE 6 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE………………………………………………………14

FIGURE 7 DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE……………………………………………………15

FIGURE 8. SMART GRID (SG) ARCHITECTURE………………………………………………………………………16

FIGURE 9. THE ROLE OF SMART GRIDS IN THE OVERALL ELECTRICITY SECTOR………….…………17

FIGURE 10. NECESSITY OF SMART AND INTELLIGENT SCADA…………………………………………………18

FIGURE 11 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………20

FIGURE 12 SMART SCADA SYSTEM FUNCTIONS FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM………………………….21

FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTED POWER CONTROL SCHEME……………………………………………………………22

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APA

Michael, O (2018). Future SCADA System for Smart Grid. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/future-scada-system-for-smart-grid

MLA 8th

Okika, Michael. "Future SCADA System for Smart Grid" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 15 Dec. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/future-scada-system-for-smart-grid . Accessed 24 Mar. 2019.

MLA7

Okika, Michael. "Future SCADA System for Smart Grid". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 15 Dec. 2018. Web. 24 Mar. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/future-scada-system-for-smart-grid >.

Chicago

Okika, Michael. "Future SCADA System for Smart Grid" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed March 24, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/future-scada-system-for-smart-grid