GSM based Transformer Protection Monitoring and Control

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

1.1 Background to the study......................................................................................................................................... 3

1.2 Problem statement ................................................................................................................................................ 3

1.3 Aim ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

1.4 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

1.5 Justification ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

1.6 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1.7 System Design ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

1.8 Expected results ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2.0 THEORETICAL ASPECTS ........................................................................................................................................... 6

2.1.1 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION ............................................................................................................................... 6

2.1.2 Current Transformer............................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1.3 Voltage Transformer............................................................................................................................................ 8

2.1.4Overcurrent Protection ........................................................................................................................................ 9

2.1.5Restricted Earth Fault Protection .......................................................................................................................... 9

2.1.6Differential Protection Scheme (DIFF) ..................................................................................................................10

2.1.7Buchholz protection ............................................................................................................................................11

2.1.8Overload Protection ............................................................................................................................................12

2.1.9 Basics of Transformers Thermal Performance .....................................................................................................13

2.3.0 Hardware ...........................................................................................................................................................15

2.3.1 Switch ................................................................................................................................................................15

2.3.2 Relays .................................................................................................................................................................15

2.3.3 Arduino/Genuino Uno ........................................................................................................................................17

2.3.4 SIM900 GSM Module ..........................................................................................................................................21

2.3.5 MQ2 gas sensor ..................................................................................................................................................23

Reference ...................................................................................................................................................................24

CHAPTER 3 ..................................................................................................................................................................25

3.0 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT RESEARCH METHODS ...............................................................................................26

3.1 DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................................................................26

3.1.2 Eagle Software ...................................................................................................................................................27

3.1.3 PCB Circuit Board fabrication ..............................................................................................................................27

3.1.4 Printing artwork .................................................................................................................................................27

3.1.5 Exposure ............................................................................................................................................................27

3.1.6 Developing .........................................................................................................................................................27

3.1.7 Etching ...............................................................................................................................................................28

3.1.8 Cutting and drilling .............................................................................................................................................28

3.1.9 Circuit maker ......................................................................................................................................................28

3.2 Breadboard ...........................................................................................................................................................28

3.2.1 Soldering ............................................................................................................................................................29

3.2.2 Arduino ..............................................................................................................................................................29

3.2.3 Coding ................................................................................................................................................................29

3.2.4 Assembling .........................................................................................................................................................29

3.2.5. Debugging .........................................................................................................................................................29

3.2.6 Programming......................................................................................................................................................30

3.3 HOW THE PROJECT WORKS ...................................................................................................................................30

References ..................................................................................................................................................................33

FINDINGS, RESULTS AND ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................35

4.0 FINDINGS ..............................................................................................................................................................35

4.1 RESULTS ................................................................................................................................................................36

4.2 LIMITATIONS .........................................................................................................................................................44

CHAPTER 5 ..................................................................................................................................................................45

5.0 CONCLUSION .........................................................................................................................................................45

5.1 RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................................................45

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APA

Research, S. & MUTEMARINGA, L (2021). GSM based Transformer Protection Monitoring and Control. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/gsm-based-transformer-protection-monitoring-and-control

MLA 8th

Research, SSA, and LUCKMORE MUTEMARINGA "GSM based Transformer Protection Monitoring and Control" Afribary. Afribary, 10 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/gsm-based-transformer-protection-monitoring-and-control. Accessed 30 Jun. 2022.

MLA7

Research, SSA, and LUCKMORE MUTEMARINGA . "GSM based Transformer Protection Monitoring and Control". Afribary, Afribary, 10 May. 2021. Web. 30 Jun. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/gsm-based-transformer-protection-monitoring-and-control >.

Chicago

Research, SSA and MUTEMARINGA, LUCKMORE . "GSM based Transformer Protection Monitoring and Control" Afribary (2021). Accessed June 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/gsm-based-transformer-protection-monitoring-and-control