Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds

Ugochukwu Igwillo 133 PAGES (36433 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

Physical and aerodynamic properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds were studied at four moisture levels: 12.50, 15.00, 17.50 and 20.10% wet basis (w.b). As moisture content increased from 10.50 to 20.10% wet basis (w.b), the average weight, major diameter, minor diameter, intermediate diameter, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter of the seeds ranged from 0.35-0.60g, 8.0-10.06mm, 4.04-5.00mm, 2.96-4.60mm, 4.52-6.03mm, and 5.03-6.55mm respectively. Also the equivalent diameter, surface area, sphericity, projected area and aspect ratio of the seeds ranged from 4.75-6.03mm, 64.19-114.25mm2, 56-60%, 25.64-39.47mm2, and 50-50mm respectively. The volume ranges from 0.35-0.73cm3, while true and bulk densities ranged from 1.099-1.110g/cm3 and 0.835-0.938g/cm3. Porosity decreased from 15.01-5.60 as moisture content increased from 10.50 - 20.10 (w.b). The angle of repose ranged from 39.80-60.10 degrees with increase in moisture content. The optimum parboiling time, temperature and moisture content for hulling African breadfruit seeds were determined as 7.5minutes, 57.5 degrees and 20.10%(w.b) respectively. The terminal velocity of the seeds and kernels ranged from 12.5-17.02 m/s and 11.40-13.36 m/s. Drag coefficient and drag force of the hulls ranged from 0.1-0.7 and 0.51 x 10^-4 - 0.858x10^-4N, while the drag coefficient and drag force of the seeds and kernels ranged from 0.92-0.2, 4.50 x10^-4 - 6.00x10^-4N; 0.2-0.3 and 4.0x10^-4 - 5.10x10^-4 N respectively. This indicates that optimum separation can be achieved effectively without any loss of the seeds if the results obtained are properly applied in processing African breadfruit.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                       ii

Dedication.                     iii

Declaration.                    iv

Certification.                   v

Acknowledgement.       vi

Abstract.                         vii

Table of Contents.        viii

List of Tables.                xi

List of Figures.              xiii

List of Plates.                xv

Notations.                      xvi

Chapter One: Introduction.            1

1.1 Background of the Study.        1

1.2 Problem Statement.                 7

1.3 Justification of the Study.       7

1.4 Objectives of the Study.           7

1.5 Scope of the Study.                  8

Chapter Two: Literature review

2.1 Review of Literature on Physical Properties of Agricultural Materials.                9

2.2. Review of Literature on Aerodynamic Properties of Agricultural Materials.      23

2.3 Brief Background Information on the Science of Aerodynamics.                         29

2.4 Turbulent, Transition and laminar Flow.                                                                     30

       2.4.1 Characteristics of Turbulent Flow.                                                                    31

       2.4.2 Examples of Turbulent Flow.                                                                             31

       2.4.3 Transition Flow.                                                                                                    31

       2.4.4 Laminar Flow.                                                                                                       32

       2.4.5 Characteristics of Laminar Flow.                                                                      32

       2.4.6 Examples of Laminar Flow.                                                                               32

       2.4.7 Applications of Aerodynamics.                                                                        32

       2.4.8 Terminal Velocity.                                                                                               33

       2.4.9 Terminal Velocity in Presence of Buoyancy Force.                                       33

       2.5.   Terminal Velocity as a Function of Time-Distance Relationship.               34

Chapter Three: Materials and Methods.                                                                          36

3.1 Sample Preparation.                                                                                                     36

3.2 Determination of Physical Properties of African Breadfruit seeds.                     36

3.3 Estimation of Temperature As a Function of Time During Parboiling.                42

3.4 Development of A Set of Prototype Machines.                                                       43

3.5 Stags of Fabrication.                                                                                                    43

3.6 Determination of Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit Seeds.            45

       3.6.1 Experimental Determination of Terminal Velocity of the Hulls.                  45   

       3.6.2 Reynolds Number.                                                                                              45

       3.6.3 Drag Coefficient and Drag Force.                                                                     46

3.7 Determination of Some Psychrometric Properties of Air in Aerodynamic

       Experiment.                                                                                                                  46

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion.                                                                           48

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations.               60

        5.1.1 Summary of Physical Properties.                                                                   60

        5.1.2 Summary of Aerodynamic Properties.                                                           61

5.2 Conclusion.                                                                                                                     61

        5.2.1 Conclusion Based on Physical Properties.                                                    62

        5.2.2. Conclusion Based on Aerodynamic Properties.                                          63

5.3 Recommendations.                                                                                                      63

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge.                                                                                         64

       References.                                                                                                                    66

       Appendices.                                                                                                                   73

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APA

Ugochukwu, I (2018). Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 08, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/igwilllo-ugochukwu-clifford-m-eng-thesis

MLA 8th

Igwillo, Ugochukwu. "Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Nov. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/igwilllo-ugochukwu-clifford-m-eng-thesis . Accessed 08 Aug. 2020.

MLA7

Igwillo, Ugochukwu. "Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Nov. 2018. Web. 08 Aug. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/igwilllo-ugochukwu-clifford-m-eng-thesis >.

Chicago

Igwillo, Ugochukwu. "Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed August 08, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/igwilllo-ugochukwu-clifford-m-eng-thesis