Research Papers/Topics in Agricultural And Bioresources Engineering

Feeding Everyone: Solving the Food Crisis in Event of Global Catastrophes that Kill Crops or Obscure the Sun

Mass human starvation is currently likely if global agricultural production is dramatically reduced for several years following a global catastrophe: e.g. super volcanic eruption, asteroid or comet impact, nuclear winter, abrupt climate change, super weed, extirpating crop pathogen, super bacterium, or super crop pest. This study summarizes the severity and probabilities of such scenarios, and provides an order of magnitude technical analysis comparing caloric requirements of all humans for f...

Alternative Foods as a Solution to Global Food Supply Catastrophes

Analysis of future food security typically focuses on managing gradual trends such as population growth, natural resource depletion, and environmental degradation. However, several risks threaten to cause large and abrupt declines in food security. For example, nuclear war, volcanic eruptions, and asteroid impact events can block sunlight, causing abrupt global cooling. In extreme but entirely possible cases, these events could make agriculture infeasible worldwide for several years, creating...

Integrative Risk Management for abrupt catastrophes destroying 10%- 20% of global food supply

"Global Catastrophic Risks” collectively have ~1 in 10 probability of occurring per decade. With the possible exceptions of China, USA and South Korea, current resilience, financial systems and relief capacity are designed to mitigate only limited food price increases (such as in 2008 which was caused by impacts totalling

Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Alternate Food to Address Agricultural Catastrophes Globally

The literature suggests there is about a 1 % risk per year of a 10 % global agricultural shortfall due to catastrophes such as a large volcanic eruption, a medium asteroid or comet impact, regional nuclear war, abrupt climate change, and extreme weather causing multiple breadbasket failures. This shortfall has an expected mortality of about 500 million people. To prevent such mass starvation, alternate foods can be deployed that utilize stored biomass. This study developed a model with litera...

Feeding Everyone if the Sun is Obscured and Industry is Disabled

A number of catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). The problem of feeding 7 billion people would arise (the food problem is more severe than other problems associated with these catastrophes). Previous work has shown this is possible converting stored biomass to food if industry is present. A number of risks could destroy electricity globally, including a series of high-altitude e...

Development of a pedal operated breadfruit dehulling machine

ABSTRACTBreadfruit (Treculia Africana) or simply breadnut is very important  both as food and as a potential source of oil. The economic  importance of this tropical seed on domestic and commercial basis  has necessitated the development of a pedal breadfruit dehuller, that  would reduce the Cost of maintaining and purchasing motorized dehuller, Solve the problem of fuel scarcity, inadequate electricity supply . In the engineering design of this machine, the action zone co...

Coefficient of friction

In developing processing machines for plant materials, the frictional property of the seed on structural surfaces of Mild steel (MS), Plywood (PW), Concrete (CC) and Glass (GL) is a parameter which needs to be measured. In this study, the static coefficient of friction of two Nigerian beniseed accessions (Yandev-55 and E8) were determined at moisture content levels of 5.3, 10.6, 16.1 and 22.4 per cent (wet basis). These were used as inputs into designing a beniseed oil expeller. A - 2 x 4 fac...

Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds

ABSTRACTPhysical and aerodynamic properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds were studied at four moisture levels: 12.50, 15.00, 17.50 and 20.10% wet basis (w.b). As moisture content increased from 10.50 to 20.10% wet basis (w.b), the average weight, major diameter, minor diameter, intermediate diameter, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter of the seeds ranged from 0.35-0.60g, 8.0-10.06mm, 4.04-5.00mm, 2.96-4.60mm, 4.52-6.03mm, and 5.03-6.55mm respectively. Also th...

Design of Urban Stormwater Harvesting and Application System (Case Study Nairobi CBD)

ABSTRACT The city of Nairobi was initially engineered to keep stormwater out of sight and out of mind. Unfortunately, that approach has turned a potential resource into a waste product and created new environmental hazards. Once the rain falls onto the impervious surfaces of the streets, sidewalk, parking lots and rooftops, it picks up any and all pollutants that are  in  its  path,  gathering  volume  and  speed  into  the  storm  d...

MODIFICATION OF THE UNN SWINE ENTERPRISE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE

Swine enterprise is one of the best options to choose when investing in livestock production, but has been suffering a big neglect due to lack of awareness and ignorance on the part of investors in most developing countries including Nigeria. Everything about swine enterprise depends on how they are managed as they do not demand much financially for their labour, feeding, housing and equipment selection and for other basic needs as compared to other livestock enterprise. Therefore, due ...

THE DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A LOCUST BEAN BOILER

African locust bean is a leguminous plant that is rich in nutrients and is used as food condiment. The traditional method of processing this food condiment is mostly unhygienic; consume a lot of fire wood, human energy and time. Using traditional methods for boiling 33.7Kg of locust bean would take about 12 hours. This study attempts to mechanize the existing traditional methods of boiling  locust bean by designing, constru...

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WHEEL AND BRAKE SYSTEM OF A TIPPING TRUCK

ABSTRACTThe purpose of this research work is to design, fabricate and install a hydraulic brake system on a wheel system of an agricultural tipping truck. For an efficient functioning of the brake system some measures have to be strictly considered; the weight of the vehicle and the external load.The engineering materials used in the fabrication of the wheels system include metals, ceramics and polymerics.Despite the efficiency of the brake there must be routine checks and maintenance to ensu...

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FOUR-WAY TRAFFIC LIGHT

ABSTRACTThe project “microcontroller based intelligent traffic light system with automatic street light and warning light” was designed to tackle the traffic issues in the country so as to establish automatic traffic control and monitoring system with near perfection. The project intelligent traffic light with automatic street light and warning light is a complex microcontroller based project that was designed to control traffic on a four way road network.The system is embedded with ...

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF FLOODING ON FOUR VARIETIES OF RICE (A CASE STUDY OF EZZA NORTH, ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE)

ABSTRACTFlooding has been described as one of the most important environmental factors determining the distribution of salt maize plants. We studied the impact of five water levels on the germination and establishment of the invasive cord grass spartina denifora. Plant house experiment was carried out to determine the effects of time and depth of flooding o the survival and growth of rice. Data showed that time and depth of flood had significant effects on the survival and growth of rice.&nbs...