IMPACT OF NYPA PALM (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) AND MANGROVES ON THE PLANKTON AND BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE RIVER ANDONI, NIGERIA.

Udi Emoyoma 57 PAGES (9683 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT


The impact of Nypa fruticans (Wurmb) and mangroves on the plankton and benthic communities of Andoni river was carried out between January and August, 2017. Four stations were chosen based on Nypa palm and native mangrove species’ presence and absence. Water quality parameters include; pH 6.99±0.16, Temperature 28.20±0.050C, D.O 4.71±0.18mg/L, Conductivity 19.52±0.20µm/s, Salinity 10.76±0.07ppt, TDS 13.45±0.27ppt.  Mean values of the physico-chemical parameters (p<0.05) were not significantly different. 737 zooplankton in eleven genera were collected. Copepoda dominated with 75.1%. 4774 phytoplankton in 6 taxa, were collected. Bacilliarophyceae dominated with 87.45%. Shannon Weiner index  across the stations was highest in station 4 (0.36) and lowest in station 1 (0.33). Margalef’s index was highest in stations 2,3, and 4 (3.48) and Lowest in station 1 (2.67). Pielou’s index of evenness was highest in station 4 (0.099) and lowest in station 1 (0.089).  Twelve taxa of benthic macro-invertebrates in eleven families were collected. The crustaceans were more in diversity (38.46%), while Bivalvia, Pisces and Oligochaete had the least percentage composition (7.69%). The gastropods were more in species dominance (44.69%), while the Oligochaeta were least in abundance (0.61%). Shannon Weiner’s index across the stations for benthos was highest in station 3 (0.274) and lowest in station 4 (0.189). Margalef’s index was highest in station 2 (1.181) and lowest in station 4 (0.337). Pielou’s index of evenness was highest in station 4 (1.689) and lowest in station 2 (0.892). The composition and abundance of plankton across the stations showed no significant difference across the stations (P<0.05).



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title Page                                                                                                                                          i

Declaration                                                                                                                                       ii

Certification                                                                                                                                    iii

Dedication                                                                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                           v

Abstract                                                                                                                                         vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                         viii

List of Figures                                                                                                                                 x

List of Plates                                                                                                                                   xi

List of Tables                                                                                                                                 xii                         

                                                                                                                                       

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                              

1.1     Background to the Study                                                                                                         1

1.2    Statement of the Problem                                                                                                        2

1.3   Aim and Objectives                                                                                                                  3

1.4   Significance of the Study                                                                                                         4

CHAPTER TWO :  LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Impact of Invasive species on coastal waters                                                                          5

2.2.  Physico-chemical conditions of Estuaries.                                                                              6

2.3.  Plankton as Indicators                                                                                                             8                                                                                                           

2.4   Macro-invertebrates as Bio-indicators                                                                                    10

CHAPTER THREE : MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1   Study Area                                                                                                                              14

3.2   Plankton sampling                                                                                                                  18

3.2.1  Determination of Plankton                                                                                                   18

3.3     Collection of Benthos                                                                                                           18

3.4     Laboratory Analysis of  Physico-chemicals                                                                         19

3.5     Data Analysis                                                                                                                       24

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Physical and Chemical Parameters                                                                                      26                                                                                                            

4.2    .Plankton                                                                                                                               32

4.4     Benthic Macro-Invertebrates                                                                                               37

4.5     Discussion                                                                                                                           43

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary                                                                                                                             48

5.2    Conclusion                                                                                                                           48

5.3    Recommendation for further studies                                                                                   48

5.4    Contribution to knowledge                                                                                                  49

References                                                                                                                                    50

Appendix                                                                                                                                      57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures           Title                                                                                                                Page

3.1          Map of River Andoni river system  ............................................................................... 16

4.1          Mean pH of Andoni River, January to August, 2017.................................................... 28

4.2          Mean Temperature of Andoni River, January to August, 2017..................................... 28

4.3          Mean Salinity of Andoni River, January to August, 2017............................................. 29

4.4          Mean Dissolved oxygen of Andoni River, January to August, 2017............................ 29

4.5          Mean Total Dissolved Solids of Andoni River, January to August, 2017..................... 30

4.6          Mean Conductivity of Andoni River, January to August, 2017.................................... 30

4.7         Abundance Plankton and Benthos versus stations of Andoni River.............................. 38...........

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

LIST OF PLATES

Plates                          Title                                                                                                    Page

3.2          Station 2: Nypa palm dominated site ............................................................................ 17

 

3.3          Station 4 : Mixed Population of Nypa palm and Mangrove.......................................... 17

 

3.4          Selected phytoplankton species...................................................................................... 21

 

3.5          Selected zooplankton species......................................................................................... 22

 

3.6          Selected Benthic macroinvertebrate species .................................................................. 23


 

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                                                     Page

4.1.      Range, Mean and Standard error of physico-chemical parameters                    31

 

4.2       Checklist of Zooplankton collected from  Andoni river                                   33

 

4.3       Checklist of Phytoplankton collected from  Andoni river                         34

 

4.4       Stations Species diversity for plankton                                                  36

 

4.5       Percentage Composition of families and species in each class of  macro-invertebrates 39

 

4.6       Percentage abundance of each class of macro-invertebrates                         40

 

4.7       Checklist of benthic macro-invertebrates                                               41

 

4.8       Stations species diversity for benthic invertebrates                                    42

 


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APA

Udi, E (2020). IMPACT OF NYPA PALM (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) AND MANGROVES ON THE PLANKTON AND BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE RIVER ANDONI, NIGERIA.. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/impact-of-nypa-palm-nypa-fruticans-wurmb-and-mangroves-on-the-plankton-and-benthic-communities-of-the-river-andoni-nigeria

MLA 8th

Emoyoma, Udi. "IMPACT OF NYPA PALM (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) AND MANGROVES ON THE PLANKTON AND BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE RIVER ANDONI, NIGERIA." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 09 Jul. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/impact-of-nypa-palm-nypa-fruticans-wurmb-and-mangroves-on-the-plankton-and-benthic-communities-of-the-river-andoni-nigeria . Accessed 04 Aug. 2020.

MLA7

Emoyoma, Udi. "IMPACT OF NYPA PALM (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) AND MANGROVES ON THE PLANKTON AND BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE RIVER ANDONI, NIGERIA.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 09 Jul. 2020. Web. 04 Aug. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/impact-of-nypa-palm-nypa-fruticans-wurmb-and-mangroves-on-the-plankton-and-benthic-communities-of-the-river-andoni-nigeria >.

Chicago

Emoyoma, Udi. "IMPACT OF NYPA PALM (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) AND MANGROVES ON THE PLANKTON AND BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE RIVER ANDONI, NIGERIA." Afribary.com (2020). Accessed August 04, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/impact-of-nypa-palm-nypa-fruticans-wurmb-and-mangroves-on-the-plankton-and-benthic-communities-of-the-river-andoni-nigeria