Interlingua Translatabimty of Figurative Expressions a Case Study of English and Tera in Gombe State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT This research was carried on Translation titled, Interlingual Translatability of figurative expressions with reference to Tera language spoken in Gombe State, Nigeria as receptor language. The research tries to investigate and identify firstly some existing obstacles in the process of inter-lingual translation of idiomatic expressions, and then suggests some weighty theoretical strategies to overcome such difficulties. In line with Baker’s (1992) classification of dif~flculties and the related subcategories, the present study makes an effort to analyze such classifications and practically apply them largely for some English and the equivalent Tera pairs. 1-lowever the research methodology provides for expert translation of the expressions, and then test was conducted on Tera bilinguals both on translating plane English language and idiomatic expressions into their mothertongue. Among the participants were; Lawyers, administrators, Teachers and some students from various tertiary institutions in Gombe metropolis. The selected institutions comprises of Gombe State University, F.C.E.T. Gombe and Goni Muktar polytechnic. Findings show that there are a number of factors to be considered in order to translate idiomatic expressions correctly. The most important of such factors include cultural aspect. linguistic and stylistic considerations. And this study went ahead to investigate Tera specific problems such as 1-lausa language interference with other meta-l ingual sub problems.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION A

DECLARATION B

DECLARATION C iv

DEDICATION V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VI

TABLE CONTENTS vii

ABBREVIATIONS xi

ABSTRACT xii

CHAPTER ONE 1

INTRODUCTION OP THE STUDY 1

1 .0 Introduction I

I. Background of the Study 1

1.1.1 Historical Perspective 2

.1 .2Theoretical Perspective 10

I .1 .2.1 Equivalence Theory 10

I .2.2 The Relevance Theory 10

1 .3 Conceptual Perspective 11

1 .4 Contextual Perspective 14

1.2 Statement of the Probleiii 14

1.3 Purpose of the Study 15

1.4 Objectives 15

I .5 Research Hypotheses 15

1.6 The Scope of the Study 15

1.7 Significance of the StLldy 16

vii

CHAPTER TWO .17

LITERATURE REVIEW 17

2.0 Introduction 17

2. 1 TheoretiCal Review 17

2.1.1. Equivalence Theory 17

2. 1 .2 RelevanCe Theory 24

2.2. Conceptual Framework 25

2.3 Related Literaatre 28

2,3.1 English Specific Literature 28

2.3.1 .1 Scholars verdicts on Translation 28

2.3. I .2 Translation Competence Models 30

2.3.1.3 Translation Theories 34

2,3.1.3.1 Philological Theories 35

2.3.1.3.2 Philosophical Theories 35

2.3.1.3.3 Linguistic Theories 36

2.3.1.3.4 Functional Theories 37

2.3.1.3.5 Sociolinguistic Theories 40

2.3.2 Tera Specil1c Literature 40

2.4 Summary of gap

CHAPTER THREE 46

METHODOLOGY 46

3.0 IntroductiOn 46

3.1 Research desigi~ 46

3.2 Sampling procedui’e 46

3.2.1 Research populati01~ 46

3.2.2 Sample Size 46

VIII

3.3 Data collection

3.4 Data gathering procedure 49

3.5 Data analysis 50

3.6 Ethical considerations 50

3,7 Limitation of the study 50

CHAPTER FOUR 51

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTRPRETATION 51

4.0: Introduction 51

4.1 Objective one: assessment of the respondent ability to recognize English idiomatic expressions

from the plane language 57

4.2 Objective two: Idiomatic expressions test 59

4.3. Objective Three’ 61

4.3.1 General problem ofTranslatioi 61

4.3.1.1 An idiom or fixed expression may have no equivalent in the target language’ 64

4.3.1.2 An idiom or fixed expression may have a similar counterpart in the target language, but its

context of use may be different 64

4.3.1 .3 An idiom may be used in the source text in both its literal and idiomatic senses at the same

time’ 64

4.3.1.4 The very convention of using idioms in written discourse, the contexts in which they 65

Can be used, and their frequency of use may be different in the source and target language’ 65

4.3.2 Tera specific problems 67

4.4 Discussion of interview result 67

CHAPTER FIVE 68

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 68

5.0 Introduction 68

5.1 Summary of the Findings 68

ix

5.1.1 Tera Native Bilingual’s Ability to Recognize Idioms from non-idioms ~68

5.12 Tern bilingual native’s ability to translate English idioms into Ten language 69

5.1.3 ‘E’ranslation problelTi 69

5.2 conclusion 69

5.2.1 To assess the capacity ofTera bilingual’s ability to recognize English idiomr 69

5.22 To test the Tern bilinguals on the ability to translate English into Tern languagr 69

5.2.3 To identifr problems on the process ofidioms translation from English into Tera: 70

5.3 i~.ecomrnendations 70

5.3.1 The Translation general problem 71

5.3.2 Inability of youths to speak Tern 71

5.3.3 Borrowing 72

5.3.4 Nigerian Government on Language Policr 72

5.3.4.1 In Education,

5.3.4.2 In Culture,

5.3.4.3 In Communication and Inthrination, 72

5.3.4.4 In Science,

5.4 Suggestion for Further Study 73

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

NAMES OF The TRANSLATORS 82



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APA

Wakili, J (2022). Interlingua Translatabimty of Figurative Expressions a Case Study of English and Tera in Gombe State, Nigeria. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/interlingua-translatabimty-of-figurative-expressions-a-case-study-of-english-and-tera-in-gombe-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Wakili, Ja’far "Interlingua Translatabimty of Figurative Expressions a Case Study of English and Tera in Gombe State, Nigeria" Afribary. Afribary, 11 Oct. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/interlingua-translatabimty-of-figurative-expressions-a-case-study-of-english-and-tera-in-gombe-state-nigeria. Accessed 14 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Wakili, Ja’far . "Interlingua Translatabimty of Figurative Expressions a Case Study of English and Tera in Gombe State, Nigeria". Afribary, Afribary, 11 Oct. 2022. Web. 14 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/interlingua-translatabimty-of-figurative-expressions-a-case-study-of-english-and-tera-in-gombe-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Wakili, Ja’far . "Interlingua Translatabimty of Figurative Expressions a Case Study of English and Tera in Gombe State, Nigeria" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/interlingua-translatabimty-of-figurative-expressions-a-case-study-of-english-and-tera-in-gombe-state-nigeria