Investigation on the mechanical properties of sagbama aggregate (flexural property)

Okoyor Godwin 75 PAGES (12081 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT



This study investigation on the mechanical properties of Sagbama rice granite was analyzed to determine the load that would cause ultimate flexural stress on the material when used in concrete construction .This is necessary to make decision on where it is suitable for use. This study requires the production of 12 concrete beams of 100mmx100mmx500mm with sagbama rice granite as coarse and fine aggregate. Three (3) specimens were produced to be tested at 7, 14, 21 and 28days.Mix ratio used was1:6. Also conventional granite as control was used to produce concrete with mix 1:2:4.The two materials were prepared to the same standard in terms of batching, mixing, compacting and curing for flexural test at the age of 7, 14,21and 28 days. Test was based on the three (3)-point bending system (one loading point plus two simple supports). Sieve analysis of the aggregate was also carried out to determine their gradation and it was found from the result that Sagbama rice granite and sharp sand are well graded and granite aggregate uniformly graded. Flexural strength of concrete made from Sagbama rice granite was found to be 5.87N/mm2, 7.98N/mm2 4.82N/mm2 and 2.90N/mm2 for 7, 14, 21and 28days respectively while the flexural strength of conventional aggregate concrete was found to be 2.2N/mm2, 4.9N/mm2, 5.4N/mm2 and 7.28N/mm2 respectively. The strength of Sagbama rice granite at 7 and 14 days was higher than the 7 and 14 days strength of the conventional granite which implies that the rate at which sagbama rice granite concrete gain strength is higher than that of conventional granite aggregate concrete. The strength at 21and 28 days for Sagbama rice granite concrete reduced with age. Conventional granite on the other hand increased generally in strength with age. Comparing the two materials, results suggests that Sagbama rice granite concrete can be reasonably used for minor works with short life span while the conventional granite aggregate concrete is preferable for all kind of construction work.











TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page……………………………………………………………………………..…………..……I

Certification……………………………………………………………………...……….………ii

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………….…….iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………iv

Abstract……………………………………………………………………..……………………v

Table of Content………….……….………………………………………..………….….……vi

List of Figures………………………………….……………………………………………….vii

List of Plates………...…………………………………………………………………………………viii


CHAPTER ONE

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....1

Background of Study………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..2

Scope of Study…………………………………………………………………………………………………..………..….2

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………………………….……………….2

Objective of Study…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2

Limitation of Study…………………………………………………………………….…………………………..…....3

Definition of  Terms………………………………………………………………………………………………….…....3


CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………............................…5

Concept of Concrete……………………………………………………………………………….………….…….….…8

Types of Concrete………………………………………………………………………………….…………………......9

Properties of Fresh Concrete……………………………………………………………………………..……….…11

Consistency………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….……….…10

Workability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..10

Settlement and Bleeding………………………………………………………………………………..……...…...10

Slump Loss……………………………………………………………………….………………………………………….…..10

Plastic Shrinkage………………………………………………………………………….………………………….……..10

Compatibility…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….…11

Effects of Aggregate Size on Concrete………………………………………………………….………….….…11

Cement………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….12

Properties of Cement……………………………………………………………………………………..…..12

Types of Cement……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……..12

Aggregate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………....…15

Water……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…15

Test for Concrete………………………………………………………………..………………………………........…..16

Slump Test…………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………..…16

Properties of Hardened Cement…………………………………………….……………………………….……….17

Strength……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…....18

Material Requirement for Concrete Manufacture……………………………………….…….………....18

Batching……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…..………..18

Mixing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..…...19

Transportation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……19

Placing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…..…..19

Compaction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..19

Curing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………..……19

Finishing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……...….....20

Formwork…………………………………………………………………………………………….………………....…..…20

Types of Formwork………………………………………………………………………….………………………......20

Formwork Requirement……………………………………………………….………………………………….….…21

Treatment of Formwork………………………………………………………………………………………….….….21

Striking off Formwork………………………………………………………………………………………….......…22

Knock off Formwork……………………………………………………………….……………………………....…..22



CHAPTER THREE

Methodology………………………...............................................................................23

Laboratory Test……………………………………………………………………...…………………………………....24

Sieve Analysis…………………………………………………………………..…………………………………..…...…24

Specific Gravity Determination……………………………………………….……………………………...….24

Slump Test……………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………26

Flexural Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..…..26

Mixing of Concrete…………………………………………………………………………………………………..…...32

Hand Mixing………………………………………………………………………………………………………....….….32

Curing of the Concrete …………………………………………………………………………………..………….….32

Method Curing of Curing Used……………………………………………………………………………..….…..33

Flexural Test Procedures……………………………………………………………………………………..…….….33


CHAPTER FOUR

Results Analysis and Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………..…..35

Sharp Sand Sieve Analysis Result………………………………….………………………………………………… 35

Coarse Aggregate (19mm) Sieve Analysis Result……………………………………………….………..…37

Sagbama Aggregate Sieve Analysis Result……………………………………………………………………….38

Coefficient of Distribution for Sagbama Aggregate………………………………..………………………39

Sieve Analysis Result Discussions…………………………………………………………………….….……..…..40

Beam Casting Plan Using Sagbama Aggregate…………………………….………….…………….……..…41

Beam Casting Plan Using Conventional Aggregate…………………….…………………………....…...41

Curing Plan for Concrete Beam with Sagbama Aggregate………………………………………….….41

Curing Plan for Concrete Beam with Conventional Aggregate……………………………….……..41

Crushing Plan for Concrete Beams With Sagbama Aggregate………………….………….....….42

Crushing Plan for Concrete Beams with Conventional Aggregate …………………………..…..42

Result Values(Flexural Test) 1:6 Mix Sagbama Aggregate……………...………….…………..…..42

Result Value(Flexural Test) 1:2:4 Mix Conventional Aggregate……….……………………….…43

Flexural Strength Result Discussion……………………………………………………………………….…...…46

Flexural Strength or Modulus of Rupture Calculation……………………………………………….….47

Deflection Result Discussion………………………………………………………...……………………………..…52


CHAPTER FIVE

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54

Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….55

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……59 

List of figure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………56

List of Plates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………56




LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Sharp Sand Sieve Analysis Result………………………………………… 36

Table 4.2: Percentage Passing (Sharp Sand)……………………….……………………….37

Table4.3: Coarse Aggregate Sieve Analysis Result (19mm Granite)……………………….37

Table 4.4: Percentage Passing (Granite)……………………………………………………38

Table 4.5: Sagbama Rice Granite Sieve Analysis Result…………………………………….38

Table 4.6: Percentage Passing (Sagbama Rice Granite)………………………………………41

Table 4.7: Beams Casting Plan With Sagbama Rice Granite………...........................................41

Table 4.8: Beams Casting Plan with Conventional Granite……………………………………41

Table 4.9: Curing Plan for Concrete Beams with Sagbama Aggregate…………………………41

Table 4.10: Curing Plan for Concrete Beams with Conventional Granite...............................42

Table 4.11: Crushing Plan or Concrete Beams with Sagbama Rice Granite..............................42

Table 4.12: Crushing Plan for Concrete Beams with Conventional Granite.....................42

Table 4.13: Flexural Test Result, Sagbama Rice Granite (1:6 Mix) 7 Day…………………42

Table 4.14: Flexural Test Result, Sagbama Rice Granite (1:6 Mix) 14 Days.......................42

Table 4.15: Flexural Test Result, Sagbama Rice Granite (1:6 Mix) 21 Days .......................43

Table 4.16: Flexural Test Result, Sagbama Rice Granite (1:6 Mix) 28 Days………………. 43

Table 4.17: Flexural Test Result Values (1:2:4 Mix) Conventional Granite………………..43

Table 4.18: Flexural Test Result Values (1:2:4 Mix) Conventional Granite 14days…………43

Table 4.19: Flexural Test Result Values (1:2:4 Mix) Conventional Granite 21days…………..43

Table 4.20: Flexural Test Result Values (1:2:4 Mix) Conventional Granite 28days……….….44

Table 4.21: Average Mean Flexural Test Result Values (1:6 Mix) Sagbama Rice Granite……44

Table 4.22: Flexural Test Average Mean Result Values (1:2:4 Mix) Conventional Granite ......45

Table 4.23: Average Mean Strength Comparisons Table for Concrete with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite ....................................................................................45

Table 4.24: Deflection Result Values for Beam Concrete with Sagbama Rice Granite …….....50

Table 4.25: Deflection Result Values for Beam Concrete with Conventional Aggregate …….50

Table 4.26: Deflection Comparisons Table for Concrete with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite………………………………………………………………….. 50


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Types of Slump………………………………………………………………………..

Figure 3.2: Samples of Aggregate………………………………………………………………….

Figure 3.3: 3-Piont Flexure Test……………………………………………………………………

Figure 3.4: Arrangement of Specimen on a Testing Machine…………………………

Figure 4.1: Set of Sieves………………………………………………………………….

Figure 4.2: Graph of % Pass of Sharp Sand against Sieve Number………………………1

Figure 4.3: Graph Of % Pass Coarse Aggregate against Sieve Number ………………………1

Figure 4.4: Graph of % Passing For Sagbama Rice Granite against Sieve ………………1

Figure 4.5: Sieve Analysis Result Comparison Graph of Coarse, Fine and Sagbama Aggregate……..............................................................................................................1

Figure 4.6: Graph of Average Mean Strength against Days for Concrete Beam made with Sagbama Rice Granite……………………………………………………..1

Figure 4.7: Graph of Average Mean Strength against Days for Concrete Beam made with Conventional Granite ……………………………………………………………….1

Figure 4.8: Mean Strength Graph Comparison of Beam Concrete made with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite……………………………………………..…1

Figure 4.9: Strength Bar Chart Comparison of Beam Concrete made with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite......................................................................................…...1

Figure 4.10: Graph of Strength against Deflection for Concrete Beams made with Sagbama Rice Granite...........................................................................................................…...1

Figure 4.11: Graph of Strength against Deflection for Concrete Beams made with Conventional Granite...................................................................................................…..........................1

Figure 4.1: Deflection Graph Comparison of Beam Concrete made with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite ………………………………………………….…1

Figure 4.13: Deflection Bar Chart Comparison of Beam Concrete made with Sagbama Rice Granite and Conventional Granite ………………………………………………………..1



LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1: Sagbama Rice Granite Samples…............................................................................1

Plate 2: Weighing of Specimen for Sieve Analysis Experiment………………. …………1 

Plate 3: Batching of Aggregate.........................................................................................

Plate 4: Tapping of Mixed Concrete in A Mould.......................................………………1

Plate 5: Concrete Cast in a Beam Mould .............................................................…………1

Plate 6: Hardened Concrete Demoulded................................................……………………1

Plate 8: Testing Machine..............................................................................................1

Plate 9: Setting Testing Machine.......................... ……………........……………………1

Plate 10: Placing of Specimen in a Testing Machine........................................................... ……1

Plate 11: Specimen Placed on a Testing Machine............………………………………1

Plate 12: Sample of Specimen after Testing……….............................................………1

Plate 13: Specimen on a Testing Machine after Testing.....................................………1

Plate 14: Tested Specimen......................................................................…………………1

Plate 15: Sieve Analysis Experiment.......................................................…………………1

Plate 16: Source of Sagbama Rice Granite........................................…………1


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APA

Okoyor, G (2019). Investigation on the mechanical properties of sagbama aggregate (flexural property). Afribary.com: Retrieved December 11, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/investigation-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-sagbama-aggregate-flexural-property

MLA 8th

Godwin, Okoyor. "Investigation on the mechanical properties of sagbama aggregate (flexural property)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 20 Nov. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/investigation-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-sagbama-aggregate-flexural-property . Accessed 11 Dec. 2019.

MLA7

Godwin, Okoyor. "Investigation on the mechanical properties of sagbama aggregate (flexural property)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 20 Nov. 2019. Web. 11 Dec. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/investigation-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-sagbama-aggregate-flexural-property >.

Chicago

Godwin, Okoyor. "Investigation on the mechanical properties of sagbama aggregate (flexural property)" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed December 11, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/investigation-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-sagbama-aggregate-flexural-property