An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for the Control of Gas Flaring in Nigeria

Akindele Adeniyi 233 PAGES (61940 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

The  study  examined  the  legal  and  institutional  framework  for  combating  gas  flaring  in  Nigeria. The  study  considered  the  history,  function,  effect  of  oil  exploratory  activities  of  oil  companies  in Nigeria  having  caused  gas  flaring  resulting  in  loss  of  lives  and  properties  in  the  affected communities  where  gas  is  flared. The  study  relied  on  primary  and  secondary  sources  of  information.  The  primary  data  included statutes  and  case  laws.  Statutes  such  as  the  constitution  of  the  federal  republic  of  Nigeria  (as amended),  criminal  code  violations,  conventions  and  decided  cases.  The  secondary  sorces  of information  used  are  books,  journal,  articles,  newspaper,  reviews  and  the  internet. This  study  found  that  more  gas  is  flared  in  Nigeria  than  anywhere  else  in  the  world.  Estimates are  notoriously  unreliable  but  roughly  2.5  billion  cubic  feet  of  gas  associated  with  crude  oil  is wasted  in  this  way  every  day.  This  is  equal  to  40  percent  of  Africa’s  natural  gas  consumption  in 2001  while  the  annual  financial  loss  to  Nigeria  is  about  2.5  billion  dollars.  The  flares  have contributed  more  green  houses  gases  than  all  subs  Saharan  Africa  combined.  And  the  flares contain  a  cocktail  of  toxins  that  affect  the  health  and  livelihood  of  local  communities  exposing Niger  delta  resident  to  an  increased  risk  of  pre  mature  death,  child  respiratory  illnesses,  asthma and  Gas  flaring  have  been  condemned  severally  in  different  countries  of  the  world.   The  study  concluded  that  there  is  no  specific  legal  framework  that  prohibits  gas  flaring  in Nigeria  in  spite  of  the  environmental  problems  associated  with  it.  The  existing  law  that  appears to  regulate  gas  flaring  in  Nigeria  is  not  effective  as  it  does  not  completely  prohibit  gas  flaring  but only  provide  monetary  penalties  for  continued  flaring  of  gas  by  oil  companies  in  Nigeria.  The Judiciary  therefore  appeared  to  have  championed  the  cause  for  the  abolition  of  gas  flaring  in Nigeria. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

TATBLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CASES

TABLE OS STATUTES AND CONVENTIONS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Statement of the Research problem

Research Methodology

Significance of the study

Structure of the Study


CHAPTER TWO

 THE NIGERIA OIL SECTOR IN PERSPECTIVE

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Evolution and Historical Development of Oil and Gas in Nigeria

2.2 Crude Oil Exploitation In The Niger Delta And Oil Spill

2.3 Major Events in the history of the Nigerian Oil and Gas

2.4 The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)

2.5 Regulatory Function of the NNPC

2.6 The Deregulation of the downstream sub-sector of the Nigeria petroleum industry

2.5.1. Benefits of the Deregulation of the Downstream Sub-sector

2.5.2. Challenges of the Deregulation of the Downstream Sub- sector

2.6 Conclusion


CHAPTER THREE

CONCEPT AND CHALLENGES OF GAS FLARING IN NIGERIA

Introduction

3.1History of Gas Flaring in Nigeria

3.2 What is Gas Flaring? 

Gas flaring composition

Who are the culprits in the Flare Game?

Health Implications for Humans

Measuring Gas Flared and Its Emissions

The  Effects of Gas Flaring

Who are the culprits in the flare Game

Is Gas flaring Legal in Nigeria?

Some Human And Environmental Protection Cases In Nigeria

3.5.1 Gbemre v Shell: The Beginning of the End of Gas Flaring in Nigeria

Gas flaring in the Niger Delta

3.5.1. Overview of the Niger Delta

3.5.2. Women and the Niger Delta Economy

3.5.3. The level of Gas Flaring In Nigeria

3.5.4. Rhetorics and politics of unending Gas flaring in Nigeria

3.5.5. Impact of Gas flaring on women’s livelihood in Niger Delta

3.5.6. Gas flaring and the loss of cultivatable Land

3.6 The judicial Response to Gas Flaring


CHAPTER FOUR

INTERNATIONAL LEGAL RESPONSES TO GAS FLARING 

4.0 Introduction

4.1 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

4.1.1. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF)

4.2 The Kyoto protocol

4.2.1. Clean Development Mechanism

4.2.2. Emission Trading

4.3 International law on Gas flaring that are Domesticated in Nigeria

4.3.1. The 1972 Stockholm Conference on Human Environment

4.3.2. The Vienna Convention on the protection of the ozone layer 1988

4.3.3. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

4.3.4. World Summit on sustainable Development or Rio

4.3.5. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD)

4.3.6 African Charter on Human and people’s Right


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CONTROL OF GAS GLARING IN NIGERIA

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Institutions and Legislations relating to Environmental Protection in the Sector

5.3. Legislative and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection in Oil and Gas Sector in Nigeria

5.3.1.   Associated Gas Re-Injection Act

5.3.2.   Petroleum Industry Bill

5.4. Institutional Framework

5.4.1. National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (Establishment) Act

5.4.2. Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA)

5.4.3. Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Act

5.4.4. Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) Act

5.4.5. Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) Act

5.4.6. Merchant Shipping Act

5.4.7. Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NMA) (Establishment, etc) Act

5.5. Other Regulatory Agencies

5.6.      Environmental Protection in the Gas Sub-Sector


CHAPTER SIX

6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1 Summary of Findings

6.2 Conclusion

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APA

Akindele, A (2019). An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for the Control of Gas Flaring in Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 25, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/legal-and-institutional-framework-for-the-control-of-gas-flaring-in-nigeria

MLA 8th

Adeniyi, Akindele. "An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for the Control of Gas Flaring in Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 18 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/legal-and-institutional-framework-for-the-control-of-gas-flaring-in-nigeria . Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.

MLA7

Adeniyi, Akindele. "An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for the Control of Gas Flaring in Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 18 Jul. 2019. Web. 25 Aug. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/legal-and-institutional-framework-for-the-control-of-gas-flaring-in-nigeria >.

Chicago

Adeniyi, Akindele. "An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for the Control of Gas Flaring in Nigeria" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed August 25, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/legal-and-institutional-framework-for-the-control-of-gas-flaring-in-nigeria