Management of Gray Literature in Academic Libraries In Nigeria

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ABSTRACT This research investigated management and use of grey literature in academic libraries in Niger State. The purpose of it is to identify types of grey literature, examine methods of acquisition, processing, preservation and utilisation. In addition, to ascertain management challenges and strategies for improvement. Research questions were formulated based on seven points of the purposes. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. One hundred and two (102) librarians (professional and paraprofessional) from Federal University of Technology, Minna, IBB University, Lapai, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, and Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru constituted the population. The entire population was used. There was no sampling because the sample size was manageable. The instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. Documentary evidences in the area of grey literature formed the basis for construction of these instruments. The instruments were face validated by three senior researchers in the field of Library and Information Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The research instruments were administered directly by the researcher. In analyzing the data collected, frequency table and mean score were used for the questionnaire and checklist, while the interview was presented in prose narrative form substantiating information obtained from questionnaire. The findings revealed that appreciable size and variety of grey literature resources are available in most libraries but proper management is where problems lie. The major methods of acquisition are donation/gift and standing order deposit for staff. Classification is the main method through which grey literature is processed, while cataloguing, indexing and abstracting are neglected in most cases. It was also found out that the major methods employed by most of the libraries for preserving grey literature are the use of shelves with labels and vertical files collection with content descriptions. The popular access points are print lists and shelf guides. Some of the challenges encountered with the management and accessing of grey literature resources in the area include lack of national bibliography for grey literature, as well as unwillingness of originating bodies to release copies of documents which topped the list. Strategies itemized for improving management of grey literature resources include; provision of national bibliography, policy statements and adequate fund for acquisition and digitization of the resources. Based on these, the study recommends for the provision of a national bibliography for grey literature, good policy statements for acquisition and use of grey literature, digitization of the resources, as well as government/institutions/libraries voting adequate fund for acquisition of grey literature, especially electronic resources.


Title Page i

Approval Page ii

Certification Page iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Table of Contents vi

Abstract viii


Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 11

Purpose of the Study 13

Research Questions 13

Significance of the Study 14

Scope of the Study 15


Conceptual Framework 17

 Concept of Grey Literature 17

 Concept of Management of Grey Literature 29

 Concept of Utilisation of Grey Literature 36

 Concept of Academic Libraries 40

Challenges in Managing of Grey Literature 43

Strategies for Improving Management of Grey Literature 46

Theoretical Framework 50

Review of Related Empirical Studies 54

Summary of Literature Review 59


Design of the Study 61

Area of the Study 61


Population of the Study 62

Sample and Sampling Techniques 62

Instruments for Data Collection 63

Validation of the Instrument 64

Method of Data Collection 64

Method of Data Analysis 65


Summary of Findings 77


Discussion of the Findings 80

Implications of the Study 87

Recommendations 88

Limitations of the Study 88

Suggestion for further Studies 89

Conclusion 89

References 91

Appendices 95

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ENAGI, M (2022). Management of Gray Literature in Academic Libraries In Nigeria. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

ENAGI, MUHAMMAD "Management of Gray Literature in Academic Libraries In Nigeria" Afribary. Afribary, 16 Sep. 2022, Accessed 23 Mar. 2023.


ENAGI, MUHAMMAD . "Management of Gray Literature in Academic Libraries In Nigeria". Afribary, Afribary, 16 Sep. 2022. Web. 23 Mar. 2023. < >.


ENAGI, MUHAMMAD . "Management of Gray Literature in Academic Libraries In Nigeria" Afribary (2022). Accessed March 23, 2023.