Nigerian Civil Service today was inherited from the colonial masters-Britain, although the colonialists operated this to her profits but to the detriment of Nigeria.
Civil service is a term used to cover those employed under the Federal and State government, particularly those employed by either the federal or state civil service commission.
The Nigerian civil service became indigenous after independence in October 1, 1960. This did not come with easily, there were demands and agitations from the nationalists who had it rough with colonialists before independence. On this note Nicholson (1969) wrote “there have been demands by the nationalists for the Nigerianization of civil service before independence”.
The civil service has undergone some reforms like in General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida regime started a revolutionary reform exercise, in the civil service Dele Olowu (1988) said, “since 1988 reforms, we have witnessed the absence of legitimacy and competence among the most powerful cliques as well as the subvention of public interest in all its ramification, corruption has remained pervasive with its devastating consequences”.
The reform empowered and gave the Minister (Commissioner in the State) the overall authority and he controls the ministry as his personal affairs.
The minister being the accounting officer becomes the almighty that has the final say and does not care if his administrative operations and policies are conducive beneficial to the ministry and the nation at large.
Civil service is the backbone of the government, for it controls the entire administrative machinery of the government. The civil service as a bureaucratic institution having a crop of individuals from all works of life within the society is organized to carry out the activities of the government both on administration and business aspect.
The word bureaucracy has over the years acquired an odious connotation. This associated with inefficiency, lack of initiative and unintelligent rigidity in the approach to human problems. This is the sum total impression that comes to mind when the word bureaucracy is mentioned and applied to the way civil servants go about their normal business. This is the reason Nwagbo Eze (1981) observed that “many achievement oriented shrewd observers of Nigeria people at work have always come out with a common impression that generally Nigeria workers are lazy, slow, sleepy, reluctant to act, unconcerned and deceitful in their approach. These workers are said to lack the zeal, the briskness, and momentum of hard working people and generally, they dislike hearing people talk about efficiency, dedication, honesty, competence, determination and productivity all of which characterized achievement. People in a production oriented society”.
Then the big question starring before us is, are Nigerian workers in the civil services lazy and inefficient? By their nature are they sleepy, incompetent, slow, and lack the zeal to work¬? What are the factors surrounding low productivity in the civil service and what should be remedies?
As stated earlier, that Nigerian civil service has passed through regime and political processes some of which came with drastic measures ( like retrenchment, desolution and redeployment of top management officers as government change battin ) that left the service in tartars.
Civil service has suffered in the hands of ethnic politics and dichotomy, nepotism, godfatherism, corruption at the highest level, unnecessary interference from the ruling class because of political party’s policies, programmes and influences. But as part of manpower development are not addressed properly. Although there is policy on manpower development but implementation and funding lacks the executive support for its execution to the letter.
Pointing on the need for manpower development in civil service for required workers productivity, Nwachukwu (1988) said that “employee productivity is a function of ability, will and situational factors. An organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and management support, yet productivity falls below expected standards. The missing factor in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and knowledge which are acquired through training and development”.
Civil service personnel are wonderful instruments and assets in the government administrative activities.
As we know that change is constant, they need encouragement, incentives and all it takes to help them explore and rise to another level in order to withstand and measure up with the challenges obtainable in other nation’s civil service. What they need mostly coupled with incentives and encouragement is training and development to achieve this fit. If they are equipped with area, only time will tell the level of resultant benefits we will reap through civil service to the betterment of Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the process of data sourcing for this research work, there are problems facing Enugu state civil service which in one way or the other is peculiar to the entire civil service in Nigeria. There is problem of inefficiency and lack of drive among a great number of workers in the workforce coupled with low productivity. Also, inadequate training and development programmes and facilities for the manpower and there is no proper funding and sponsoring of personnel to undergo training and development courses.
Furthermore, the welfare and proper conducive working condition of the workforce not addressed properly. Result oriented management that can organize, direct and coordinate human and material resources to achieve aims and objectives is lacking.
Finally, unnecessary intervention and pressures from the political and executive class on the civil service has made vacant posts politicized thereby trusting professionalism and expertise. This also brought class struggle among management staff and to some extent goes down to subordinate groups, which causes lack of enabling work environment within the services community with tribal problems on ground.
From the problems stated we ask these questions what is the cause of inefficiency and lack of drive among the workforce? And what should be the remedies? Also looking at low productivity in the workforce, has inadequate training and development of the workers any thing to do with it? Or does the issue of improper dressing to workers welfare and working Condition added to it? What can the government and management do to help civil service thrive in this millennium era?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page i
Title page ii
Approval page iii
List of Tables viii
Table of Contents vii
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Objective of the study 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Research Questions 9
1.6 Research Hypotheses 10
1.7 Scope of the study 10
1.8 Limitation of the Study 10
1.9 Definition of Terms 11
2.1 Civil Service 14
2.2 Manpower Development 25
2.3 Productivity 32
2.4 Synthesis / Summary of Literature Review 42
3.1 Research Design 45
3.2 Area of Study/ Historical Background 46
3.3 Population of the Study 47
3.4 Sample Size and Sample Technique 47
3.5 Source of Data 48
3.6 Instrument 49
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 50
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument 50
3.9 Method of Data Collection 51
3.10 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis 52
4.0 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation 62
4.2 Data Analysis 62
4.3 Discussion of Results 77
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings 88
5.2 Conclusion 90
5.3 Recommendations 91
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