Migration Identity And Land Rights: A Case Study Of The Nubians In Kibra Nairobi Kenya


Countries worldwide could either be origin, transit or destination countries, or all three. Migration can be voluntary or forced, and the resultant effects for migrants and countries involved presents diverse challenges. In this regard, migration is therefore an important area of study. Research has been done on issues related to migration and identity. However, little is known about the inter-relation among migration, identity and land rights focusing on a particular group of long-term migrants. Such a group comprise of Nubians in Kenya, precisely in Kibra, Nairobi. The community’s migration from Sudan was initiated and planned by the British colonials who were moving deeper into eastern Africa. The study does this by examining the evolution of Nubian identity, determining the association between their migration status, identity formation and access to land. Further, the study examined the colonial legacy of Nubians, a long-term migrant community and their integration process into the nation state of their destination country, Kenya. The continuities and changes in Nubian identity and implications for their citizenship and access to land. Other issues discussed include: internal rural-urban migration into Kibra and the impacts, competition for resources, statelessness, citizenship, discrimination, ethnicity, and marginalization of minority communities. The study was conducted in Kibra constituency, Nairobi in Kenya in the following five villages: Kambi Muru, Lindi, Makina, Makongeni and Salama. Overall, a questionnaire was administered to 279 respondents to collect quantitative data, FGDs, indepth and key informant interviews, life histories and observation methods were used to collect qualitative data. The findings indicate that identity is not static and its flexibility was manipulated to suit particular situations to the advantage of the Nubians during the preindependence and post-independence periods. Ultimately, their identity was expected to reflect that they were part and parcel of Kenya and its people. Migration and interaction with others led to changes in the culture of the Nubians which necessitated collective efforts towards preserving their cultural heritage. Moreover, the study revealed that in-migration to Kibra by the inhabitants was achieved mainly through chain migration from the rural to urban area with the main reasons being perceived employment opportunities. Out-migration by Nubians from Kibra is seen as upward mobility, however the out-migrant Nubians maintain a strong link to Kibra. The reasons for the out-migration include better living standards and environment for family, and security of tenure for land purchased outside Kibra. Nine out of every 10 of the interviewees had lived in Kibra for more than twenty years and about 73 percent of both of their parents were born in Kibra, further demonstrating Kibra as their home. To buttress this connection to the land, eight out of every 10 respondents stated they had no intention of moving out because Kibra is their ancestral home in Kenya. Previous development projects on upgrading of Kibra have not been beneficial to Nubians in particular, who lost land. Collaboration with the Nubians on further development on the land is recommended. The study recommends the development and implementation of policies to protect minority communities and enhance their integration.

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MOHAMED, F (2021). Migration Identity And Land Rights: A Case Study Of The Nubians In Kibra Nairobi Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/migration-identity-and-land-rights-a-case-study-of-the-nubians-in-kibra-nairobi-kenya-1

MLA 8th

MOHAMED, FATUMA "Migration Identity And Land Rights: A Case Study Of The Nubians In Kibra Nairobi Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 13 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/migration-identity-and-land-rights-a-case-study-of-the-nubians-in-kibra-nairobi-kenya-1. Accessed 25 Jul. 2024.


MOHAMED, FATUMA . "Migration Identity And Land Rights: A Case Study Of The Nubians In Kibra Nairobi Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 13 Apr. 2021. Web. 25 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/migration-identity-and-land-rights-a-case-study-of-the-nubians-in-kibra-nairobi-kenya-1 >.


MOHAMED, FATUMA . "Migration Identity And Land Rights: A Case Study Of The Nubians In Kibra Nairobi Kenya" Afribary (2021). Accessed July 25, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/migration-identity-and-land-rights-a-case-study-of-the-nubians-in-kibra-nairobi-kenya-1